Biofuel production over Fischer-Tropsch synthesis: effect of Fe-Co/meso-HZSM-5 catalyst weight on product composition and process conversion
Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis (FTS) using Fe-Co/meso-HZSM-5 catalyst has been investigated. The impregnated iron and cobalt on HZSM-5 could be used as bifunction catalyst which combined polimerizing synthesis gas and long hydrocarbon cracking for making biofuel (saturated C5–C25 hydrocarbons as gasoline, kerosene and diesel oil). The study emphasized the effect of catalyst weight on product composition and process conversion. The HZSM-5, had been converted from ammonium ZSM-5 through calcination, and then desilicated with NaOH solution. The Co(NO3)2.6H2O and Fe(NO3)3.9H2O were used as precursor for incipient wetness impregnation (IWI) on amorphous meso-HZSM-5. The catalyst consisted of 10 % Fe and 90 % Co by weight, called 10Fe-90Co/meso-HZSM-5. All catalysts were reduced in situ in the continuous reactor with flowing hydrogen at 25 mL/min, 1 bar, 400 °C for 10 hours. The catalyst performance was observed in the same continuous fixed bed reactor at 25 mL/min synthesis gas (30 % CO, 60 % H2, 10 % N2), 250 °C, 20 bar for 96 hours. Various catalyst weight (1, 1.2, 1.4, 1.6 gram) were applied in FTS. The desilicated HZSM-5 properties (BET analysis) were 6.1–29.9 nm mesoporous diameter, 0.3496 cc/g average mesoporous volume, 526.035 cc/g pore surface area, and the EDX analysis gave 22.1059 Si/Al ratio and 16.11 % loading (by weight) on meso-HZSM-5. The reduced catalyst showed the XRD spectra of Fe (66°), Fe-Co alloy (44.50°) and Co3O4 (36.80°). The reaction using 1 gram of 10Fe-90Co/meso-HZSM-5 catalyst produced the largest composition and conversion. The 1 gram catalyst gave the largest normal selectivity of gasoline (19.15 %) and kerosene (55.18 %). While the largest normal diesel oil selectivity (24.17 %) was obtained from 1.4 gram of catalyst. The CO conversion per gram of catalyst showed similar value (CO conversion of 26–28 %) for all catalyst weight
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