INVESTIGATION ON THE AIR-GAS CHARACTERISTICS OF AIR-HYDROGEN MIXER DESIGNED FOR DUAL FUEL – ENGINES
High smoke emissions, nitrogen oxide and particulate matter typically produced by diesel engines. Diminishing the exhausted emissions without doing any significant changes in their mechanical configuration is a challenging subject. Thus, adding hydrogen to the traditional fuel would be the best practical choice to ameliorate diesel engines performance and reduce emissions. The air hydrogen mixer is an essential part of converting the diesel engine to work under dual fuel mode (hydrogen-diesel) without any engine modification. In this study, the Air-hydrogen mixer is developed to get a homogenous mixture for hydrogen with air and a stoichiometric air-fuel ratio according to the speed of the engine. The mixer depends on the balance between the force exerted on the head surface of the valve and the opposite forces (the spring and friction forces) and its relation to decrease and increase the fuel inlet. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis software was utilised to study the hydrogen and airflow behaviour inside the mixer, established by 3.2 L engine. The Air-hydrogen mixer is examined with different speeds of engine1000, 2000, 3000 and 4000 RPM. Results showed air-hydrogen mixture was homogenous in the mixer. Furthermore, the stoichiometric air-fuel ratio was achieved according to the speed of the engine, the developed mixer of the AIR-Hydrogen mixing process provides high mixing homogeneity and engines with stoichiometric air-fuel ratios, which subsequently contributes to the high levels of efficiency in engine operation. In summary, the current study intends to reduce the emissions of gases and offer a wide range of new alternative fuels usage. While the performance of the diesel engine with the new air-hydrogen mixer needs to be tested practically.
Darade, P., Dalu, R. (2013). Investigation of Performance and Emissions of CNG Fuelled VCR Engine. International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering (IJETAE), 3 (1), 77–81.
Akansu, S. O., Dulger, Z., Kahraman, N., Veziroǧlu, T. N. (2004). Internal combustion engines fueled by natural gas – hydrogen mixtures. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 29 (14), 1527–1539. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2004.01.018
Bora, B. J., Saha, U. K., Chatterjee, S., Veer, V. (2014). Effect of compression ratio on performance, combustion and emission characteristics of a dual fuel diesel engine run on raw biogas. Energy Conversion and Management, 87, 1000–1009. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2014.07.080
Bora, B. J., Debnath, B. K., Gupta, N., Saha, U., Sahoo, N. (2013). Investigation on the flow behaviour of a venturi type gas mixer designed for dual fuel diesel engines. International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering, 3 (3), 202–209.
Alrazen, H. A., Abu Talib, A. R., Adnan, R., Ahmad, K. A. (2016). A review of the effect of hydrogen addition on the performance and emissions of the compression – Ignition engine. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 54, 785–796. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2015.10.088
Yang, Z., Chu, C., Wang, L., Huang, Y. (2015). Effects of H2 addition on combustion and exhaust emissions in a diesel engine. Fuel, 139, 190–197. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2014.08.057
Chintala, V., Subramanian, K. A. (2013). A CFD (computational fluid dynamics) study for optimization of gas injector orientation for performance improvement of a dual-fuel diesel engine. Energy, 57, 709–721. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2013.06.009
Zhou, J. H., Cheung, C. S., Leung, C. W. (2014). Combustion, performance and emissions of a diesel engine with H2, CH4 and H2–CH4 addition. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 39 (9), 4611–4621. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2013.12.194
Sahoo, B. B., Sahoo, N., Saha, U. K. (2009). Effect of engine parameters and type of gaseous fuel on the performance of dual-fuel gas diesel engines – A critical review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 13 (6-7), 1151–1184. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2008.08.003
Yaliwal, V. S., Banapurmath, N. R., Gireesh, N. M., Hosmath, R. S., Donateo, T., Tewari, P. G. (2016). Effect of nozzle and combustion chamber geometry on the performance of a diesel engine operated on dual fuel mode using renewable fuels. Renewable Energy, 93, 483–501. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2016.03.020
Paul, A., Panua, R. S., Debroy, D., Bose, P. K. (2015). An experimental study of the performance, combustion and emission characteristics of a CI engine under dual fuel mode using CNG and oxygenated pilot fuel blends. Energy, 86, 560–573. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2015.04.050
Liu, J., Zhang, X., Wang, T., Zhang, J., Wang, H. (2015). Experimental and numerical study of the pollution formation in a diesel/CNG dual fuel engine. Fuel, 159, 418–429. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2015.07.003
Alrazen, H. A., Abu Talib, A. R., Ahmad, K. A. (2016). A two-component CFD studies of the effects of H2, CNG, and diesel blend on combustion characteristics and emissions of a diesel engine. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 41 (24), 10483–10495. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2015.07.097
Szwaja, S., Grab-Rogalinski, K. (2009). Hydrogen combustion in a compression ignition diesel engine. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 34 (10), 4413–4421. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2009.03.020
Zhou, J., Cheung, C., Leung, C. (2013). Combustion and emission of a compression ignition engine fueled with diesel and hydrogen-methane mixture. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology International Journal of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, 7 (8), 1653–1658.
Hairuddin, A. A., Yusaf, T., Wandel, A. P. (2014). A review of hydrogen and natural gas addition in diesel HCCI engines. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 32, 739–761. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2014.01.018
Mahmood, H. A., Mariah Adam, N., Sahari, B. B., Masuri, S. U., Ahmed, H. E. (2019). An Investigation of Air-Gas Mixer Types Designed for Dual Fuel Engines: Review. Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 14 (4), 1014–1033. doi: https://doi.org/10.36478/jeasci.2019.1014.1033
Mahmood, H. A., Adam, N. M., Sahari, B., Masuri, S. (2016). Investigation On The Air-Gas Characteristics Of Air-Gas Mixer Designed For Dual Fuel-Engines. International Journal of Control Theory and Applications, 9 (30), 195–216.
Mahmood, H. A., Adam, N. M., Sahari, B. B., Masuri, S. U. (2017). New Design of a CNG-H2-AIR Mixer for Internal Combustion Engines: An Experimental and Numerical Study. Energies, 10 (9), 1373. doi: https://doi.org/10.3390/en10091373
Mahmood, H. A., Adam, N. M., Sahari, B. B., Masuri, S. U. (2017). Design of Compressed Natural Gas-Air Mixer for Dual Fuel Engine Using Three-Dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling. Journal of Computational and Theoretical Nanoscience, 14 (7), 3125–3142. doi: https://doi.org/10.1166/jctn.2017.6605
Copyright (c) 2021 Alaulddin A. Kazum, Osam H. Attia, Ali I. Mosa, Nor Mariah. Adam
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Our journal abides by the Creative Commons CC BY copyright rights and permissions for open access journals.
Authors, who are published in this journal, agree to the following conditions:
1. The authors reserve the right to authorship of the work and pass the first publication right of this work to the journal under the terms of a Creative Commons CC BY, which allows others to freely distribute the published research with the obligatory reference to the authors of the original work and the first publication of the work in this journal.
2. The authors have the right to conclude separate supplement agreements that relate to non-exclusive work distribution in the form in which it has been published by the journal (for example, to upload the work to the online storage of the journal or publish it as part of a monograph), provided that the reference to the first publication of the work in this journal is included.