The effect of adding natural materials waste on the mechanical properties and water absorption of epoxy composite using grey relations analysis
Recently, there has been a tendency for scientific studies to deal with natural materials as fillers and reinforcement for polymer composites, which are used in many different applications due to their environmentally friendly properties when compared to synthetic materials. The current study aims to preserve the environment by dealing with natural materials and their influence on the mechanical properties and water absorption property of the polymer composites. In this study, epoxy composites were produced from local natural sourced non-hazardous raw natural materials using grey relational analysis (GRG). The materials used for fabrication include micro-filler of pollen palm 50 μm, seashell 75 μm and epoxy resin. Nine different composites were prepared using pollen palm and seashell as reinforcement material by varying the wt % of the micro-filler. Rule of the mixture was used for formulation and wt % of (0.5, 1 and 1.5) % reinforcement and 99.5, 99 and 98.5 % epoxy (binder) were used for composites. Grey relational analysis was conducted in order to scale the multi-response performance to a single response. The results indicate that optimum performance can be achieved with the addition of 1.5 wt % micro-filler of seashell, which achieved the first rank, while the second rank achieved by 0.5 wt % micro-filler of palm pollen and seashell when compared to other composites. The addition of micro-fillers has improved greatly the mechanical properties of epoxy composites. The loading of micro-fillers has influenced the water absorption property of composites based epoxy in ascending order
Herrera-Franco, P. J., Aguilar-Vega, M. de J. (1997). Effect of fiber treatment on the mechanical properties of LDPE‐henequen cellulosic fiber composites. Journal of applied polymer science, 65 (1), 197–207. doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/(sici)1097-4628(19970705)65:1<197::aid-app24>3.0.co;2-#
Kowalczyk, M., Piorkowska, E., Kulpinski, P., Pracella, M. (2011). Mechanical and thermal properties of PLA composites with cellulose nanofibers and standard size fibers. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 42 (10), 1509–1514. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesa.2011.07.003
Pandey, J. K., Takagi, H., Nakagaito, A. N., Saini, D. R., Ahn, S.-H. (2012). An overview on the cellulose based conducting composites. Composites Part B: Engineering, 43 (7), 2822–2826. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesb.2012.04.045
Wollerdorfer, M., Bader, H. (1998). Influence of natural fibres on the mechanical properties of biodegradable polymers. Industrial Crops and Products, 8 (2), 105–112. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/s0926-6690(97)10015-2
Keller, A. (2003). Compounding and mechanical properties of biodegradable hemp fibre composites. Composites Science and Technology, 63 (9), 1307–1316. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/s0266-3538(03)00102-7
Odusanya, A. A., Bolasodun, B., Madueke, C. I. (2014). Property evaluation of sea shell filler reinforced unsaturated polyester composite. International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, 5 (11), 1343–1349. Available at: https://www.ijser.org/researchpaper/Property-Evaluation-of-Sea-shell-Filler-Reinforced-Unsaturated.pdf
Pokroy, B., Fitch, A. N., Lee, P. L., Quintana, J. P., Caspi, E. N., Zolotoyabko, E. (2006). Anisotropic lattice distortions in the mollusk-made aragonite: A widespread phenomenon. Journal of Structural Biology, 153 (2), 145–150. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsb.2005.10.009
Meyers, M. A., Chen, P.-Y., Lin, A. Y.-M., Seki, Y. (2008). Biological materials: Structure and mechanical properties. Progress in Materials Science, 53 (1), 1–206. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pmatsci.2007.05.002
Lu, T., Jiang, M., Jiang, Z., Hui, D., Wang, Z., Zhou, Z. (2013). Effect of surface modification of bamboo cellulose fibers on mechanical properties of cellulose/epoxy composites. Composites Part B: Engineering, 51, 28–34. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesb.2013.02.031
Anand, P., Anbumalar, V. (2015). Mechanical Properties of Cellulose-filled Epoxy Hybrid Composites Reinforced with Alkali-treated Hemp Fiber. Polymer Korea, 39 (1), 46–55. doi: https://doi.org/10.7317/pk.2015.39.1.46
Patel, V. K., Dhanola, A. (2016). Influence of CaCO3, Al2O3, and TiO2 microfillers on physico-mechanical properties of Luffa cylindrica/polyester composites. Engineering Science and Technology, an International Journal, 19 (2), 676–683. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jestch.2015.10.005
Melo, P. M. A., Macêdo, O. B., Barbosa, G. P., Ueki, M. M., Silva, L. B. (2019). High-density polyethylene/mollusk shell-waste composites: effects of particle size and coupling agent on morphology, mechanical and thermal properties. Journal of Materials Research and Technology, 8 (2), 1915–1925. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmrt.2019.01.008
Chong, M. H., Chun, B. C., Chung, Y.-C., Cho, B. G. (2005). Fire-retardant plastic material from oyster-shell powder and recycled polyethylene. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 99 (4), 1583–1589. doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/app.22484
Kaseem, M., Ko, Y. G. (2016). Melt Flow Behavior and Processability of Polylactic Acid/Polystyrene (PLA/PS) Polymer Blends. Journal of Polymers and the Environment, 25 (4), 994–998. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10924-016-0873-5
Datesproduction report for the year 2019. Central Statistical Organization Iraq SCO. Ministry of Planning. Iraq. Available at: http://cosit.gov.iq/documents/agriculture/agri_other/full%20reports/%D8%AA%D9%82%D8%B1%D9%8A%D8%B1%20%D8%A7%D9%86%D8%AA%D8%A7%D8%AC%20%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AA%D9%85%D9%88%D8%B1%202019.pdf
Munthoub, D. I., Rahman, W. A. W. A. (2011). Tensile and Water Absorption Properties of Biodegradable Composites Derived from Cassava Skin/Polyvinyl Alcohol with Glycerol as Plasticizer. Sains Malaysiana, 40 (7), 713–718. Available at: http://journalarticle.ukm.my/2544/1/07_Dayangku_Intan.pdf
Deo, C., Acharya, S. K. (2010). Effect of Moisture Absorption on Mechanical Properties of Chopped Natural Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composite. Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites, 29 (16), 2513–2521. doi: https://doi.org/10.1177/0731684409353352
Ajith Arul Daniel, S., Pugazhenthi, R., Kumar, R., Vijayananth, S. (2019). Multi objective prediction and optimization of control parameters in the milling of aluminium hybrid metal matrix composites using ANN and Taguchi -grey relational analysis. Defence Technology, 15 (4), 545–556. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dt.2019.01.001
Panda, A., Sahoo, A. K., Rout, A. K. (2016). Multi-attribute decision making parametric optimization and modeling in hard turning using ceramic insert through grey relational analysis: A case study. Decision Science Letters, 581–592. doi: https://doi.org/10.5267/j.dsl.2016.3.001
Haq, A. N., Marimuthu, P., Jeyapaul, R. (2007). Multi response optimization of machining parameters of drilling Al/SiC metal matrix composite using grey relational analysis in the Taguchi method. The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 37 (3-4), 250–255. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-007-0981-4
Copyright (c) 2022 Ahmad A. Khalaf, Salwa A. Abed, Saad Sami Alkhfaji, Mudhar A. Al-Obaidi, Muammel M. Hanon
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Our journal abides by the Creative Commons CC BY copyright rights and permissions for open access journals.
Authors, who are published in this journal, agree to the following conditions:
1. The authors reserve the right to authorship of the work and pass the first publication right of this work to the journal under the terms of a Creative Commons CC BY, which allows others to freely distribute the published research with the obligatory reference to the authors of the original work and the first publication of the work in this journal.
2. The authors have the right to conclude separate supplement agreements that relate to non-exclusive work distribution in the form in which it has been published by the journal (for example, to upload the work to the online storage of the journal or publish it as part of a monograph), provided that the reference to the first publication of the work in this journal is included.