The effect of Clathrin protein addition on increasing the number of electrons in organic Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC)
Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) is a solar cell that uses dyes to convert sunlight into electricity, which has a wide absorption spectrum, is inexpensive and environmentally friendly. Visible light sensitive dyes are used in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) types to generate electricity. Natural sensitive dyes that are commonly used in DSSC are chlorophyll derived from plants. Chlorophyll is a source of electrons which will be excited when exposed to light, resulting in an electric current in the DSSC. The most basic problem in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) is that the number of electrons produced is still lower than that of silicon solar cells. This is due to the high recombination process of free electrons due to limited diffusion of electrons trapped at the boundary between TiO2 particles caused by less than optimal contact between particles. Clathrin is a protein that plays an important role in the formation of the vesicle layer which is responsible for the transport of molecules in cells. As a protein that plays an important role in the cell transport system, Clathrin can bind to ions in order to transport cells. This study has proven that the addition of Clathrin protein to the DSSC layer can increase the number of electrons generated in the DSSC. The method used in this study was to vary the addition of Clathrin content to TiO2, namely the Clathrin concentration of 0 %, 25 %, 50 % and 75 %. The results showed that increasing the Clathrin content would increase the electric current and the number of electrons generated by the DSSC, namely the 75 % Clathrin content with an electric current of 5,247 mA and the number of electrons was 3.28x1016
Duffie, A. J., Beckman, A. W. (2013). Solar Engineering of Thermal Processes. Wiley. doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118671603
Trends 2018 in Photovoltaic Applications. Report IEA PVPS T1-34:2018. International Energy Agency. Available at: https://iea-pvps.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/01/2018_iea-pvps_report_2018.pdf
Bharam, V. (2012). Advantages and challenges of silicon in the photovoltaic cells. Available at: https://commons.trincoll.edu/wp-content/blogs.dir/438/files/2013/03/Final-Paper-Vishal-Bharam-_Silicon-in-Photovoltaic-Cell.pdf
Fthenakis, V. M., Kim, H. C., Alsema, E. (2008). Emissions from Photovoltaic Life Cycles. Environmental Science & Technology, 42 (6), 2168–2174. doi: https://doi.org/10.1021/es071763q
O’Regan, B., Grätzel, M. (1991). A low-cost, high-efficiency solar cell based on dye-sensitized colloidal TiO2 films. Nature, 353 (6346), 737–740. doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/353737a0
Wongcharee, K., Meeyoo, V. (2008). Improvement of TiO2 properties for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell by hydrothermal and sol-gel processes. In Technology and Innovation for Sustainable Development Conference. Khon Kaen University, p. 485–488.
Gratzel (2003). Review Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology C: Photochemistry reviews, 4, 145–153.
Tan, W., Chen, J., Zhou, X., Zhang, J., Lin, Y., Li, X., Xiao, X. (2008). Preparation of nanocrystalline TiO2 thin film at low temperature and its application in dye-sensitized solar cell. Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry, 13 (5), 651–656. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10008-008-0605-4
Morgan, D., Waclawik, E., Frost, R. (2006). Relationship of Titania Nanotube Binding Energies and Raman Spectra. 2006 International Conference on Nanoscience and Nanotechnology. doi: https://doi.org/10.1109/iconn.2006.340550
Maiyalagan (2006). Fabrication and characterization of uniform TiO2 nanotube arrays by sol-gel template method. Bulletin of Materials Science, 29 (7), 705–708. Available at: https://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.601.1311&rep=rep1&type=pdf
Nazeeruddin, M. K., Baranoff, E., Grätzel, M. (2011). Dye-sensitized solar cells: A brief overview. Solar Energy, 85 (6), 1172–1178. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.solener.2011.01.018
Halme, J. (2002). Dye-sensitized nanostructured and organic photovoltaic cells: technical review and preliminary tests. Espoo. Available at: https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/84757081.pdf
Hara, K. (2000). Highly efficient photon-to-electron conversion with mercurochrome-sensitized nanoporous oxide semiconductor solar cells. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 64 (2), 115–134. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/s0927-0248(00)00065-9
Li, X. D., Zhang, D. W., Sun, Z., Chen, Y. W., Huang, S. M. (2008). Open-circuit voltage improvement by using TiO2 nanotubes as a working electrode of dye-sensitized solar cell. 2008 2nd IEEE International Nanoelectronics Conference. doi: https://doi.org/10.1109/inec.2008.4585592
Yu, J., Wang, D., Huang, Y., Fan, X., Tang, X., Gao, C. et. al. (2011). A cylindrical core-shell-like TiO2 nanotube array anode for flexible fiber-type dye-sensitized solar cells. Nanoscale Research Letters, 6 (1). doi: https://doi.org/10.1186/1556-276x-6-94
Hu, H., Shen, J., Cao, X., Wang, H., Lv, H., Zhang, Y. et. al. (2017). Photo-assisted deposition of Ag nanoparticles on branched TiO2 nanorod arrays for dye-sensitized solar cells with enhanced efficiency. Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 694, 653–661. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2016.10.057
Chava, R. K., Kang, M. (2017). Improving the photovoltaic conversion efficiency of ZnO based dye sensitized solar cells by indium doping. Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 692, 67–76. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2016.09.029
Chou, C.-S., Chen, C.-Y., Lin, S.-H., Lu, W.-H., Wu, P. (2015). Preparation of TiO2/bamboo-charcoal-powder composite particles and their applications in dye-sensitized solar cells. Advanced Powder Technology, 26 (3), 711–717. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apt.2014.12.013
Kuang, D., Klein, C., Snaith, H. J., Moser, J.-E., Humphry-Baker, R., Comte, P. et. al. (2006). Ion Coordinating Sensitizer for High Efficiency Mesoscopic Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: Influence of Lithium Ions on the Photovoltaic Performance of Liquid and Solid-State Cells. Nano Letters, 6 (4), 769–773. doi: https://doi.org/10.1021/nl060075m
Javed, H. M. A., Que, W., Yin, X., Xing, Y., Shao, J., Kong, L. B. (2016). ZnO/TiO2 nanohexagon arrays heterojunction photoanode for enhancing power conversion efficiency in dye-sensitized solar cells. Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 685, 610–618. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2016.05.325
Sujinnapram, S., Moungsrijun, S. (2015). Additive SnO2-ZnO Composite Photoanode for Improvement of Power Conversion Efficiency in Dye-sensitized Solar Cell. Procedia Manufacturing, 2, 108–112. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.promfg.2015.07.019
Zeng, W., Cao, Y., Bai, Y., Wang, Y., Shi, Y., Zhang, M. et. al. (2010). Efficient Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells with an Organic Photosensitizer Featuring Orderly Conjugated Ethylenedioxythiophene and Dithienosilole Blocks. Chemistry of Materials, 22 (5), 1915–1925. doi: https://doi.org/10.1021/cm9036988
Pearse, B. M. (1976). Clathrin: a unique protein associated with intracellular transfer of membrane by coated vesicles. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 73 (4), 1255–1259. doi: https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.73.4.1255
Dannhauser, P. N., Platen, M., Böning, H., Schaap, I. A. T. (2015). Durable protein lattices of clathrin that can be functionalized with nanoparticles and active biomolecules. Nature Nanotechnology, 10 (11), 954–957. doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/nnano.2015.206
Schoen, A. P., Schoen, D. T., Huggins, K. N. L., Arunagirinathan, M. A., Heilshorn, S. C. (2011). Template Engineering Through Epitope Recognition: A Modular, Biomimetic Strategy for Inorganic Nanomaterial Synthesis. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 133 (45), 18202–18207. doi: https://doi.org/10.1021/ja204732n
Templeton, D. (2002). Molecular and cellular iron transport. CRC Press, 848. doi: https://doi.org/10.1201/9780367800536
Miessler, G. L., Tarr, D. A. (1991). Inorganic chemistry. Pearson Prentice-Hall.
Sadasivan, S., Patil, A. J., Bromley, K. M., Hastie, P. G. R., Banting, G., Mann, S. (2008). Novel protein–inorganic nanoparticles prepared by inorganic replication of self-assembled clathrin cages and triskelia. Soft Matter, 4 (10), 2054. doi: https://doi.org/10.1039/b803437k
ASTM E948-09. Standard Test Method for Electrical Performance of Photovoltaic Cells Using Reference Cells Under Simulated Sunlight. doi: https://doi.org/10.1520/e0948-09
Fraga, F., Rios, A. F., Perez, F. F., Figueiras, F. G. (1998). Theoretical limits of oxygen:carbon and oxygen:nitrogen ratios during photosynthesis and mineralisation of organic matter in the sea. Scientia Marina, 62 (1-2), 161–168. Available at: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/bebc/e5e0462fea626fd4f413cea589cf390f8b64.pdf?_ga=2.127582797.1903911800.1628247763-1132255821.1618302288
Littlejohn, S. D. (2014). Electrical Properties of Graphite Nanoparticles in Silicone: Flexible Oscillators and Electromechanical Sensing. Springer, 166. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-00741-0
Pierret, P. F. (2003). Advanced Semiconductor Fundamentals: Volume VI. Pearson. Available at: https://www.lti.kit.edu/rd_download/material_SS_2006/Advanced_Semiconductor_Fundamentals.pdf
Neamen, D. A. (2010). Microelectronics: Circuit Analysis and Design. McGraw-Hill. Available at: http://powerunit-ju.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/01/Electronics-book.pdf
Rich, P. R. (2003). The molecular machinery of Keilin's respiratory chain. Biochemical Society Transactions, 31 (6), 1095–1105. doi: https://doi.org/10.1042/bst0311095
Skoog, D. A., Holler, F. J., Crouch, S. R. (2007). Principles of Instrumental Analysis. Thomson Brooks/Cole. Available at: https://drive.google.com/file/d/1sPpyXZCSd01zOSZ290j-wwfcnA6frg4n/view?usp=sharing
Thatcher, R. W. (1921). The chemistry of plant life. McGraw-Hill. Available at: https://drive.google.com/file/d/1bR8_iLSrxMNUiUNb1kLTqwONU6T7EEUw/view?usp=sharing
Cozzone, J. A. (2002). Proteins: Fundamental Chemical Properties. Encyclopedia of Life Sciences. Available at: http://www-sop.inria.fr/axis/cost282/kelsi04/Brito/Brito3.pdf
Louda, D. W. (2012). Overview of Biomolecules. Florida Atlantic University. Available at: http://med.fau.edu/students/md_m1_orientation/Overview.pdf
Lin, S.-P. (2010). Amino Acids & Proteins. Institute of Biomedical Available at: https://drive.google.com/file/d/1qY55WQDAFx8d2m8QTDxzjwHUnZDbsf3W/view?usp=sharing
Dorothy, J.-L. (1934). The Proteins as Colloidal Electrolytes. Available at: https://drive.google.com/file/d/1V83KfqvGAO49F0naAPrdKWpONk8kU0SQ/view?usp=sharing
Coates, J. (2006). Interpretation of Infrared Spectra, A Practical Approach. Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry. doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470027318.a5606
Diamant, Y., Chappel, S., Chen, S. G., Melamed, O., Zaban, A. (2004). Core–shell nanoporous electrode for dye sensitized solar cells: the effect of shell characteristics on the electronic properties of the electrode. Coordination Chemistry Reviews, 248 (13-14), 1271–1276. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ccr.2004.03.003
Patle, L. B., Chaudhari, A. L. (2016). Performance of DSSC with Cu Doped TiO2 Electrode Prepared by Dip Coating Technique. International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research. 7 (8), 1004–1009. Available at: https://drive.google.com/file/d/1vJu8D3WD3f4dfNxbJcpgsHR4oaLOwvsz/view?usp=sharing
Arifin, Z., Soeparman, S., Widhiyanuriyawan, D., Purwanto, A., Dharmanto (2017). Synthesis, characterisation, and fabrication hollow fibres of Zn-doped TiO2 for dye-sensitized solar cells. Journal of Engineering Science and Technology, XX (Y). Available at: https://drive.google.com/file/d/1fKYijYKU3mz7J5tt0CAX-WbDzMJsvLBx/view
Copyright (c) 2022 Prihanto Trihutomo, Marji Marji, Muchammad Harly, Bambang Adi Wahyudi, Muhammad Bustomi Radja
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Our journal abides by the Creative Commons CC BY copyright rights and permissions for open access journals.
Authors, who are published in this journal, agree to the following conditions:
1. The authors reserve the right to authorship of the work and pass the first publication right of this work to the journal under the terms of a Creative Commons CC BY, which allows others to freely distribute the published research with the obligatory reference to the authors of the original work and the first publication of the work in this journal.
2. The authors have the right to conclude separate supplement agreements that relate to non-exclusive work distribution in the form in which it has been published by the journal (for example, to upload the work to the online storage of the journal or publish it as part of a monograph), provided that the reference to the first publication of the work in this journal is included.