Analysis of duck eggshells as hydroxyapatite with heat treatment method
Duck eggshell contains very high calcium, making it a raw material for hydroxyapatite (HA) biomedical applications. The aim of this study was to synthesize natural HA from duck eggshell waste using cleaning, drying, smoothing with a smoothness level of passing is 200 meshes and heat treatment with temperature variations of 850 ºC, 900 ºC, and 950 ºC for one hour. The resulting HA material was characterized using X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results of the physical characteristics of raw duck eggshells without heat treatment are white, slightly bluish in color, the smell and level of smoothness is smooth. However, heated powdered duck eggshells which are heated 950 °C are whiter than the samples which are heated at 850 ºC and 900 ºC, they have no odor and their smoothness is the smoothest. The small peaks of HA from the non-heat duck eggshell powder were 64.89 % with a CaCO3 of 23.50 %, then the peak of CaO increased along with the increasing of heat treatment temperature of 900 °C that result HA in 69.31 % and reduce CaCO3 in 19.44 %. Duck egg shell powder achieved the highest diffraction with the increasing formation of HA at a heat 950 ºC by 91.87 % with a very significant decrease of CaCO3 in 2.25 %. The XRF test results of duck eggshell powder showed that the chemical composition of CaO was 99.50 %, with elemental calcium (Ca) of 99.71 %. The FTIR test results on mesh 200 observed a reduction in the intensity of CaCO3 absorption, while the intensity of CaO at 364.55 cm-1 was getting stronger, which indicated the formation of CaO at 950 °C. This showed that the CaO formation at a temperature of 950 ºC was much more than the formation at a lower temperature. The deformation from the CaO to HA phase was close to perfect with 91.87 % hydroxylapatite
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