Characterization of WO3 thin films deposited by spray pyrolysis technique and its role in gas sensing

Keywords: structural, morphological, compositional, optical, transparent, substrate, sensors, electrospray, crystallinity, deposition

Abstract

The work investigated in this paper focused on the fabrication of WO3 films by the spray pyrolysis technique, and different analyses were made to find optimized samples for studying properties suitable for the application of gas sensing. The substrate temperature is the most important parameter among other spray parameters for the synthesis of thin films hence WO3 thin films were deposited on glass substrates by maintaining the substrate temperature at 350 ºC, 450 ºC, 550 ºC, and 650 °C using compressed air as a carrier gas. The influence of the substrate temperature on the structural, morphological, compositional, and optical properties of the WO3 thin films has been justified using XRD data. Good and enhanced crystallinity is observed for the film deposited at a substrate temperature of 550 ºC. The nonconventional properties were studied by different investigations and confirmed by past research work. The manipulation of surface morphology with the different deposition temperatures is monitored. Only the characteristic peaks of W and O are present in the fabricated WO3 thin films. The optical activity of about 70 to 80 % of the selected sample in the visible region (300 to 1200 nm) is found. The selective absorption activity of light in the ultraviolet region and visible region is checked. The obtained IR bands confirmed the inter bridge stretching and bending modes of W-O and O-W-O. A high response towards ammonia compared to other test gases is exhibited. The repeatability of WO3 towards NH3 over three periodic sensing cycles, response, and recovery time has also been discussed. From all the characteristic studies, it has been suggested that the fabricated WO3 thin films have been used in the health care field to detect the toxic NH3 gas

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Sivaraman Sethu Sivathas, A.V.C. College (Autonomous); Bharathidasan University

Department of Physics

Sambandam Murugan, A.V.C. College (Autonomous); Bharathidasan University

Department of Physics

Arthur Victor Babu, A.V.C. College (Autonomous); Bharathidasan University

Department of Physics

Singaravelu Ramalingam, A.V.C. College (Autonomous); Bharathidasan University

Department of Physics

Ramalingam Thirumurugan, A.V.C. College (Autonomous); Bharathidasan University

Department of Physics

Devanugraham Clement Easter Raj Bernice Victoria, TELC School of Higher Education

Department of Physics

References

Sun, L., Han, C., Wu, N., Wang, B., Wang, Y. (2018). High temperature gas sensing performances of silicon carbide nanosheets with an n–p conductivity transition. RSC Advances, 8 (25), 13697–13707. doi: https://doi.org/10.1039/c8ra02164c

Li, H.-Y., Lee, C.-S., Kim, D. H., Lee, J.-H. (2018). Flexible Room-Temperature NH3 Sensor for Ultrasensitive, Selective, and Humidity-Independent Gas Detection. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 10 (33), 27858–27867. doi: https://doi.org/10.1021/acsami.8b09169

Naseem, S., King, A. J. (2018). Ammonia production in poultry houses can affect health of humans, birds, and the environment—techniques for its reduction during poultry production. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 25 (16), 15269–15293. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-2018-y

Seekaew, Y., Pon-On, W., Wongchoosuk, C. (2019). Ultrahigh Selective Room-Temperature Ammonia Gas Sensor Based on Tin–Titanium Dioxide/reduced Graphene/Carbon Nanotube Nanocomposites by the Solvothermal Method. ACS Omega, 4 (16), 16916–16924. doi: https://doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.9b02185

Fedoruk, M. J., Bronstein, R., Kerger, B. D. (2005). Ammonia exposure and hazard assessment for selected household cleaning product uses. Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology, 15 (6), 534–544. doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.jea.7500431

Jeevitha, G., Abhinayaa, R., Mangalaraj, D., Ponpandian, N., Meena, P., Mounasamy, V., Madanagurusamy, S. (2019). Porous reduced graphene oxide (rGO)/WO3 nanocomposites for the enhanced detection of NH3 at room temperature. Nanoscale Advances, 1 (5), 1799–1811. doi: https://doi.org/10.1039/c9na00048h

Lu, R., Zhong, X., Shang, S., Wang, S., Tang, M. (2018). Effects of sintering temperature on sensing properties of WO3 and Ag-WO 3 electrode for NO2 sensor. Royal Society Open Science, 5 (10), 171691. doi: https://doi.org/10.1098/rsos.171691

Hassel, A. W., Smith, A. J., Milenkovic, S. (2006). Nanostructures from directionally solidified NiAl–W eutectic alloys. Electrochimica Acta, 52 (4), 1799–1804. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.electacta.2005.12.061

Blackman, C. S., Parkin, I. P. (2005). Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition of Crystalline Monoclinic WO3 and WO3-x Thin Films from Reaction of WCl6 with O-Containing Solvents and Their Photochromic and Electrochromic Properties. Chemistry of Materials, 17 (6), 1583–1590. doi: https://doi.org/10.1021/cm0403816

Ashraf, S., Binions, R., Blackman, C. S., Parkin, I. P. (2007). The APCVD of tungsten oxide thin films from reaction of WCl6 with ethanol and results on their gas-sensing properties. Polyhedron, 26 (7), 1493–1498. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.poly.2006.11.017

Qadri, M. U., Pujol, M. C., Ferré-Borrull, J., Llobet, E., Aguiló, M., Díaz ,F. (2011). WO3 thin films for optical gas sensing. Procedia Engineering, 25, 260–263. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2011.12.064

Rao, M. C. (2011). Effect of substrate temperature on the structural and electrical conduction behaviour of vacuum evaporated WO3 thin films. Journal of Optoelectronics and Biomedical Materials, 3 (2), 45–50. Available at: https://chalcogen.ro/45_Rao.pdf

Hussain, O. M., Swapnasmitha, A. S., John, J., Pinto, R. (2005). Structure and morphology of laser-ablated WO3 thin films. Applied Physics A, 81 (6), 1291–1297. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00339-004-3041-z

Soto, G. (2003). Characterization of tungsten oxide films produced by reactive pulsed laser deposition. Applied Surface Science, 218 (1-4), 282–290. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/s0169-4332(03)00677-9

Vardhan, R. V., Kumar, S., Mandal, S. (2020). A facile, low temperature spray pyrolysed tungsten oxide (WO3): an approach to antifouling coating by amalgamating scratch resistant and water repellent properties. Bulletin of Materials Science, 43 (1). doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12034-020-02250-z

Hasan, S. F., Al-Samarai, A.-M. E., Obaid, A. S., Ramizy, A. (2021). Study the Structure and Optical Properties of GNPs Doped WO3/PS by Spray Pyrolysis Deposition (SPD). IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 1095 (1), 012011. doi: https://doi.org/10.1088/1757-899x/1095/1/012011

Liang, Y.-C., Chang, C.-W. (2019). Preparation of Orthorhombic WO3 Thin Films and Their Crystal Quality-Dependent Dye Photodegradation Ability. Coatings, 9 (2), 90. doi: https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9020090

Patel, K. J., Bhatt, G. G., Patel, S. S., Desai, R. R., Ray, J. R., Panchal, C. J. et. al. (2017). Thickness-dependent Electrochromic Properties of Amorphous Tungsten Trioxide Thin Films. Journal of Nano- and Electronic Physics, 9 (3), 03040. doi: https://doi.org/10.21272/jnep.9(3).03040

Beena, D., Lethy, K. J., Vinodkumar, R., Mahadevan Pillai, V. P., Ganesan, V., Phase, D. M., Sudheer, S. K. (2009). Effect of substrate temperature on structural, optical and electrical properties of pulsed laser ablated nanostructured indium oxide films. Applied Surface Science, 255 (20), 8334–8342. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2009.05.057

Bujji Babu, M., Madhuri, K. (2017). Structural, morphological and optical properties of electron beam evaporated WO3thin films. Journal of Taibah University for Science, 11 (6), 1232–1237. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtusci.2016.12.003

Sivakumar, R., Gopalakrishnan, R., Jayachandran, M., Sanjeeviraja, C. (2007). Preparation and characterization of electron beam evaporated WO3 thin films. Optical Materials, 29 (6), 679–687. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.optmat.2005.11.017

An, X., Yu, J. C., Wang, Y., Hu, Y., Yu, X., Zhang, G. (2012). WO3 nanorods/graphene nanocomposites for high-efficiency visible-light-driven photocatalysis and NO2 gas sensing. Journal of Materials Chemistry, 22 (17), 8525. doi: https://doi.org/10.1039/c2jm16709c

Bai, S., Zhang, K., Sun, J., Luo, R., Li, D., Chen, A. (2014). Surface decoration of WO3 architectures with Fe2O3 nanoparticles for visible-light-driven photocatalysis. CrystEngComm, 16 (16), 3289. doi: https://doi.org/10.1039/c3ce42410c

Bi, D., Xu, Y. (2013). Synergism between Fe2O3 and WO3 particles: Photocatalytic activity enhancement and reaction mechanism. Journal of Molecular Catalysis A: Chemical, 367, 103–107. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molcata.2012.09.031

Li, X., Lin, H., Chen, X., Niu, H., Liu, J., Zhang, T., Qu, F. (2016). Dendritic α-Fe2O3/TiO2 nanocomposites with improved visible light photocatalytic activity. Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, 18 (13), 9176–9185. doi: https://doi.org/10.1039/c5cp06681f

Ramos-Delgado, N. A., Gracia-Pinilla, M. A., Maya-Treviño, L., Hinojosa-Reyes, L., Guzman-Mar, J. L., Hernández-Ramírez, A. (2013). Solar photocatalytic activity of TiO2 modified with WO3 on the degradation of an organophosphorus pesticide. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 263, 36–44. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2013.07.058

Riboni, F., Bettini, L. G., Bahnemann, D. W., Selli, E. (2013). WO3–TiO2 vs. TiO2 photocatalysts: effect of the W precursor and amount on the photocatalytic activity of mixed oxides. Catalysis Today, 209, 28–34. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cattod.2013.01.008

Jothibas, M., Manoharan, C., Ramalingam, S., Dhanapandian, S., Johnson Jeyakumar, S., Bououdina, M. (2013). Preparation, characterization, spectroscopic (FT-IR, FT-Raman, UV and visible) studies, optical properties and Kubo gap analysis of In2O3 thin films. Journal of Molecular Structure, 1049, 239–249. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molstruc.2013.06.047

Ayeshamariam, A., Ramalingam, S., Bououdina, M., Jayachandran, M. (2014). Preparation and characterizations of SnO2 nanopowder and spectroscopic (FT-IR, FT-Raman, UV–Visible and NMR) analysis using HF and DFT calculations. Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy, 118, 1135–1143. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2013.09.030

Socrates, G. (2001). Infrared and Raman Characteristic Group Frequencies: Tables and Charts. Wiley, 366. Available at: https://books.google.com.ua/books/about/Infrared_and_Raman_Characteristic_Group.html?id=lOx9QgAACAAJ&redir_esc=y

Li, Y., Chen, N., Deng, D., Xing, X., Xiao, X., Wang, Y. (2017). Formaldehyde detection: SnO2 microspheres for formaldehyde gas sensor with high sensitivity, fast response/recovery and good selectivity. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, 238, 264–273. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.snb.2016.07.051

Zhao, Y.-F., Sun, Y.-P., Yin, X., Yin, G.-C., Wang, X.-M., Jia, F.-C., Liu, B. (2018). Effect of Surfactants on the Microstructures of Hierarchical SnO2 Blooming Nanoflowers and their Gas-Sensing Properties. Nanoscale Research Letters, 13 (1). doi: https://doi.org/10.1186/s11671-018-2656-5


👁 30
⬇ 39
Published
2022-07-30
How to Cite
Sivathas, S. S., Murugan, S., Babu, A. V., Ramalingam, S., Thirumurugan, R., & Victoria, D. C. E. R. B. (2022). Characterization of WO3 thin films deposited by spray pyrolysis technique and its role in gas sensing. EUREKA: Physics and Engineering, (4), 101-113. https://doi.org/10.21303/2461-4262.2022.002347
Section
Material Science