Monitoring of Salmonella infection of poultry for the period from 2016 to 2020
Salmonellosis is an acute intestinal infectious disease that belongs to the group of zoonoses that cause acute toxic infections in humans through the consumption of products of animal or plant origin contaminated with bacteria of the genus Salmonella spp. Salmonellosis is registered in all countries of the world, and our state is no exception.
The aim of the research. Monitor salmonellosis pathogens in Ukrainian poultry farms and, on the basis of the obtained data, establish the relationship between avian and human diseases for salmonellosis.
Materials and methods. The research was conducted in poultry farms in the North-Eastern region of Ukraine. Test systems from R-biopharm-Compact Dry SL and RIDA®STAMP SL were used for rapid diagnosis of bacterial microflora. To establish the salmonella serotype, the Spectate® salmonella test system was used, which is based on the use of latex strips coated with special antibodies to the corresponding serogroups of Salmonella A, B, C, D. Microbiological examination was performed washing from the walls, floor, eggshell, Brooder's cabinets and pathogens heart, liver, gallbladder of the dead bird. The relationship between isolated salmonella serovars from poultry was compared with salmonella isolated from humans according to the reporting form No. 40 “Zdorov”.
Results. Various salmonella serovars were isolated from experimental farms of Ukraine, namely:
Serovars such as S. Gallinarum–pullorum – 7.9 %, S. Enteritidis – 6.5 % were isolated from the meat and egg direction. From the meat direction, the following are: S. Tiphimurium – 12.5 %, S. Arizona – 6.0 %, S. Enteritidis – 3.5 %. From the breeding direction were also isolated from adult birds and hatching eggs in large quantities – S. Gallinarum–pullorum – 19.0 %, S. Tiphimurium – 17.8 %, S. Enteritidis – 10.1 %.
The following species were separately isolated from the premises of the same farms in percentage terms: S. London – 1.7 %, S. Infantis – 1.5 % S. Bredeney – 1.4 %, S. Tsioque – 1.4 %, S Jawa – 1.2 %, S. Montevideo – 1.1 %, and 1 % each isolated S. Kentyki, S. Abony and S. Oxford. Pathogens of paratyphoid diseases were isolated from poultry and poultry products (S. Gallinarum–pullorum, S. Enteritidis, S. Tiphimurium) for the entire study period from 2016 to 2020 inclusive.
Comparing the obtained data from state institutions of humane medicine, it should be noted that there was a tendency for the spread of salmonellosis among people associated with the consumption of poultry products.
Conclusions. The obtained results indicate that salmonella infection is quite common among a number of poultry farms of different technological direction. In particular, bacteria of the genus Salmonella were isolated from meat, eggs and birds of different ages from the studied poultry houses in the North-Eastern region of Ukraine.
As a result of monitoring of salmonellosis in Ukraine over the past five years, fluctuations in the incidence of salmonellosis among people ranged from a maximum of 74 % (2018) to a minimum of 30.1 % (2020), and for two years, there has been a reduction in cases due to the introduction of new international requirements and standards for product quality control at all stages of production of the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) system.
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