Female patients with androgenetic alopecia: immunohistochemical picture of scalp biopsies

Keywords: androgenetic alopecia, female patients, immunohistochemistry, inflammation, cytokines, growth factors, oxidative stress enzymes


The aim of the research. To expand the knowledge about immunohistochemical changes in female patients with androgenetic alopecia (AGA) focusing on non-androgenic co-factors of pathogenesis of the disease, as this may serve as a basis for improving therapeutic regimens.

Materials and methods. Scalp biopsies of female patients with androgenetic alopecia were examined by immunohistochemical method. The study included two groups: the main group of 30 female patients aged 22 to 40 years, average age 32,13±5,03 years, and the control group that included 20 skin samples from women aged 25–40 years (average age 34,75±4,19 years) who underwent autopsies.

Results. It was found that AGA in women is characterized by a number of immunomorphological manifestations: the inflammatory infiltrate that consists of immunocompetent T-lymphocytes CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+, macrophages (CD68+); imbalance of growth polypeptides VEGF, TGF-β1, EGFR; accumulation of oxidative stress enzymes eNOS and iNOS; accumulation of pathological fraction of Collagen IV.

Conclusions. The data obtained by this study helps to improve the concept of morphogenesis of AGA, and also can become a base to improve the standards of treatment of the disease. The pathological triade “oxidative stress-microinflammation- fibrosis” should be considered as a possible treatment target, as well as the imbalance of growth peptides.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

Olena Salyenkova, V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University

Department of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Immunology

School of Medicine


Piraccini, B. M., Alessandrini, A. (2014). Androgenetic alopecia. Giornale Italiano di Dermatologia e Venereologia: Organo Ufficiale, Societa Italiana di Dermatologia e Sifilografia, 149 (1), 15–24.

Kelly, Y., Blanco, A., Tosti, A. (2016). Androgenetic Alopecia: An Update of Treatment Options. Drugs, 76 (14), 1349–1364. doi: http://doi.org/10.1007/s40265-016-0629-5

Lolli, F., Pallotti, F., Rossi, A., Fortuna, M. C., Caro, G., Lenzi, A. et. al. (2017). Androgenetic alopecia: a review. Endocrine, 57 (1), 9–17. doi: http://doi.org/10.1007/s12020-017-1280-y

Kaliyadan, F., Nambiar, A., Vijayaraghavan, S. (2013). Androgenetic alopecia: An update. Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology, and Leprology, 79 (5), 613–625. doi: http://doi.org/10.4103/0378-6323.116730

Sinclair, R., Torkamani, N., Jones, L. (2015). Androgenetic alopecia: new insights into the pathogenesis and mechanism of hair loss. F1000Research, 4, 585. doi: http://doi.org/10.12688/f1000research.6401.1

Ovcharenko, Y., Salyenkova, O. (2021). Modern concept of the etiology and pathogenesis of androgenetic alopecia. The Journal of V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University. Series "Medicine", 42, 92–100. doi: http://doi.org/10.26565/2313-6693-2021-42-11

Magro, C. M., Rossi, A., Poe, J., Manhas-Bhutani, S., Sadick, N. (2011). The role of inflammation and immunity in the pathogenesis of androgenetic alopecia. Journal of Drugs in Dermatology, 10 (12), 1404–1411.

Prie, B. E., Iosif, L., Tivig, I., Stoian, I., Giurcaneanu, C. (2016). Oxidative stress in androgenetic alopecia. Journal of medicine and life, 9 (1), 79–83.

Rojas-Martínez, A., Martinez-Jacobo, L., Villarreal-Villarreal, C., Ortiz-López, R., Ocampo-Candiani, J. (2018). Genetic and molecular aspects of androgenetic alopecia. Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology, 84 (3), 263–268. doi: http://doi.org/10.4103/ijdvl.ijdvl_262_17

Kaya Erdogan, H., Bulur, I., Kocaturk, E., Yildiz, B., Saracoglu, Z. N., Alatas, O. (2016). The role of oxidative stress in early-onset androgenetic alopecia. Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology, 16 (4), 527–530. doi: http://doi.org/10.1111/jocd.12300

Chen, Q., Sun, T., Wang, J., Jia, J., Yi, Y., Chen, Y. (2019). Hydroxytyrosol prevents dermal papilla cells inflammation under oxidative stress by inducing autophagy. Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology, 33 (9). doi: http://doi.org/10.1002/jbt.22377

Avtandilov, G. G. (2002). Osnovy kolichestvennoi patologicheskoi anatomii. Moscow: Meditsina, 240.

Varothai, S., Bergfeld, W. F. (2014). Androgenetic Alopecia: An Evidence-Based Treatment Update. American Journal of Clinical Dermatology, 15 (3), 217–230. doi: http://doi.org/10.1007/s40257-014-0077-5

Ovcharenko, Y. S., Salyenkova, O. A. (2020). Analysis of expediency to use platelet-enriched plasma for treatment of androgenetic alopecia. International Medical Journal, 1, 64–67. doi: http://doi.org/10.37436/2308-5274-2020-1-14

Starace, M., Orlando, G., Alessandrini, A., Piraccini, B. M. (2020). Female Androgenetic Alopecia: An Update on Diagnosis and Management. American Journal of Clinical Dermatology, 21 (1), 69–84. doi: http://doi.org/10.1007/s40257-019-00479-x

Rogers, N. (2013). Imposters of androgenetic alopecia: diagnostic pearls for the hair restoration surgeon. Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America, 21 (3), 325–334. doi: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.fsc.2013.04.002

Lu, G.-Q., Wu, Z.-B., Chu, X.-Y., Bi, Z.-G., Fan, W.-X. (2016). An investigation of crosstalk between Wnt/β-catenin and transforming growth factor-β signaling in androgenetic alopecia. Medicine, 95 (30), e4297. doi: http://doi.org/10.1097/md.0000000000004297

Inui, S., Itami, S. (2012). Androgen actions on the human hair follicle: perspectives. Experimental Dermatology, 22 (3), 168–171. doi: http://doi.org/10.1111/exd.12024

Pigeolet, E., Corbisier, P., Houbion, A., Lambert, D., Michiels, C., Raes, M. et. al. (1990). Glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase inactivation by peroxides and oxygen derived free radicals. Mechanisms of Ageing and Development, 51 (3), 283–297. doi: http://doi.org/10.1016/0047-6374(90)90078-t

Upton, J. H., Hannen, R. F., Bahta, A. W., Farjo, N., Farjo, B., Philpott, M. P. (2015). Oxidative Stress–Associated Senescence in Dermal Papilla Cells of Men with Androgenetic Alopecia. Journal of Investigative Dermatology, 135 (5), 1244–1252. doi: http://doi.org/10.1038/jid.2015.28

👁 43
⬇ 28
How to Cite
Salyenkova, O. (2021). Female patients with androgenetic alopecia: immunohistochemical picture of scalp biopsies. EUREKA: Health Sciences, (5), 27-33. https://doi.org/10.21303/2504-5679.2021.002043
Medicine and Dentistry