A cross-sectional study to assess proteinuria and lipoprotein (a) levels in chronic kidney disease

Keywords: proteinuria, lipoprotein, chronic kidney disease, glomerular filtration rate


Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a reduced glomerular filtration rate and/or increased urinary albumin excretion. The worldwide prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) ranges from 8 to 16 %, and the prevalence of CKD is rising.

The aim: To study the association between CKD stages, proteinuria, and lipoprotein (a) levels among the study participants.

Materials and methods: This study was an institution-based observational case-control study involving CKD patients as study group and healthy volunteers as control one. Blood samples were tested for urea, serum creatinine, uric acid levels, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, VLDL cholesterol and serum lipoprotein. Statistical analysis was done with SPSS version 20.0.

Result: In our study, the most common age group affected among cases was 41 to 50 years (5th decade), and there was a male preponderance in CKD. CKD patients had a higher mean protein creatinine ratio than controls, and this difference was statistically significant. In addition, CKD patients had significantly higher total cholesterol, triglyceride levels and lower HDL cholesterol levels than controls. Also, they had significantly elevated serum lipoprotein (a) levels than controls.

Conclusion: Based on our study findings, we can conclude that because of the potential role of lipoprotein (a) in the development of cardiovascular disease, it is imperative to include an estimation of lipoprotein (a) levels in all CKD patients, especially in later stages to give a targeted therapy for dyslipidemia among CKD patients


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Subalakshmi Radhakrishnan, Government Sivagangai Medical College & Hospital

Department of Biochemistry

Vijayapriya Indirajith, Dhanalakshmi Srinivasan Medical College & Hospital

Department of Biochemistry

Periyandi Chandran, Government Sivagangai Medical College & Hospital

Department of Biochemistry

Ganesan Subramanyam, Dhanalakshmi Srinivasan Medical College & Hospital

Department of Biochemistry

Menaha Ramu, Government Medical College & Hospital Karur

Department of Biochemistry

Suganya Kandhi, Sri Ramachandra Institute of Higher Education & Research

Department of Physiology

Pothanur Mayavan Sasikala, Government Medical College & Hospital Karur

Department of Biochemistry


KDIGO CKD Work Group. 2013. KDIGO 2012 clinical practice guideline for the evaluation and management of chronic kidney disease. Kidney International Supplements, 3, 1–150.

Jha, V., Garcia-Garcia, G., Iseki, K., Li, Z., Naicker, S., Plattner, B. et. al. (2013). Chronic kidney disease: global dimension and perspectives. The Lancet, 382 (9888), 260–272. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(13)60687-x

Hopewell, J. C., Haynes, R., Baigent, C. (2018). The role of lipoprotein (a) in chronic kidney disease. Journal of Lipid Research, 59 (4), 577–585. doi: https://doi.org/10.1194/jlr.r083626

Viney, N. J., van Capelleveen, J. C., Geary, R. S., Xia, S., Tami, J. A., Yu, R. Z. et. al. (2016). Antisense oligonucleotides targeting apolipoprotein(a) in people with raised lipoprotein(a): two randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging trials. The Lancet, 388 (10057), 2239–2253. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(16)31009-1

Tsimikas, S., Viney, N. J., Hughes, S. G., Singleton, W., Graham, M. J., Baker, B. F. et. al. (2015). Antisense therapy targeting apolipoprotein(a): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 1 study. The Lancet, 386 (10002), 1472–1483. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(15)61252-1

Kronenberg, F., Utermann, G. (2012). Lipoprotein(a): resurrected by genetics. Journal of Internal Medicine, 273 (1), 6–30. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2796.2012.02592.x

Nordestgaard, B. G., Langsted, A. (2016). Lipoprotein (a) as a cause of cardiovascular disease: insights from epidemiology, genetics, and biology. Journal of Lipid Research, 57 (11), 1953–1975. doi: https://doi.org/10.1194/jlr.r071233

Thanassoulis, G. (2016). Lipoprotein (a) in calcific aortic valve disease: from genomics to novel drug target for aortic stenosis. Journal of Lipid Research, 57 (6), 917–924. doi: https://doi.org/10.1194/jlr.r051870

Rahman, M., Yang, W., Akkina, S., Alper, A., Anderson, A. H., Appel, L. J. et. al. (2014). Relation of Serum Lipids and Lipoproteins with Progression of CKD: The CRIC Study. Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, 9 (7), 1190–1198. doi: https://doi.org/10.2215/cjn.09320913

Choudhary, Dr. N. (2019). A study of lipid profile in chronic kidney disease in pre- dialysis patients. International Journal of Medical Research and Review, 7 (3), 150–156. doi: https://doi.org/10.17511/ijmrr.2019.i03.01

Hill, N. R., Fatoba, S. T., Oke, J. L., Hirst, J. A., O’Callaghan, C. A., Lasserson, D. S., Hobbs, F. D. R. (2016). Global Prevalence of Chronic Kidney Disease – A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. PLOS ONE, 11 (7), e0158765. doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0158765

Yun, J.-S., Ahn, Y.-B., Song, K.-H., Yoo, K.-D., Park, Y.-M., Kim, H.-W., Ko, S.-H. (2015). Lipoprotein(a) predicts a new onset of chronic kidney disease in people with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetic Medicine, 33 (5), 639–643. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/dme.12862

Noor, S., Zuberi, N. A., Fatima, F., Iqbal, T. (2014). Status of Lipid Profile in Different Stages of Chronic Kidney Disease. Annals of AbbasiShaheed Hospital & Karachi Medical & Dental Collegem, 19 (2). 73.

Aharwar, S., Lahariya, D. (2015). A study of lipid profile in chronic kidney disease in non-diabetic patients. Hemoglobin, 8 (2.34), 11–51.

Garg, G., Chawla, S. M., Kaur, S. (2015). A Clinical Study Of Dyslipidemia In Patients Of Chronic Kidney Disease. International Journal of Bioassays, 4 (3), 3732–7. 75.

Rani, D. J., Raju, D. S. (2016). A Study of Lipid Profile in Chronic Renal Disease with Special Reference to LP (a). Scholars Academic Journal of Biosciences, 4 (10A), 832–839.

Sharma, H., J. Shah, T., H. Gorasia, J., P. Baria, D. (2012). Lipid profile and lipoprotein(a) in chronic renal failure patients with and without hemodialysis. International Journal of Medicine and Public Health, 2 (4), 28–31. doi: https://doi.org/10.5530/ijmedph.2.4.6

Xuan, L., Wang, T., Dai, H., Wang, B., Xiang, J., Wang, S. et. al. (2020). Serum lipoprotein (a) associates with a higher risk of reduced renal function: a prospective investigation. Journal of Lipid Research, 61 (10), 1320–1327. doi: https://doi.org/10.1194/jlr.ra120000771

Hsu, R. K., Powe, N. R. (2017). Recent trends in the prevalence of chronic kidney disease. Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension, 26 (3), 187–196. doi: https://doi.org/10.1097/mnh.0000000000000315

Tada, H., Yamagami, K., Nishikawa, T., Yoshida, T., Teramoto, R., Sakata, K. et. al. (2020). Lipoprotein (a) and the Risk of Chronic Kidney Disease in Hospitalized Japanese Patients. Internal Medicine, 59 (14), 1705–1710. doi: https://doi.org/10.2169/internalmedicine.4503-20

Gulayin, P. E., Lozada, A., Schreier, L., Gutierrez, L., López, G., Poggio, R. et. al. (2022). Elevated Lipoprotein(a) prevalence and association with family history of premature cardiovascular disease in general population with moderate cardiovascular risk and increased LDL cholesterol. IJC Heart & Vasculature, 42, 101100. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcha.2022.101100

Moriarty, P. M., Gray, J. V., Gorby, L. K. (2019). Lipoprotein apheresis for lipoprotein(a) and cardiovascular disease. Journal of Clinical Lipidology, 13 (6), 894–900. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacl.2019.09.010

A cross-sectional study to assess proteinuria and lipoprotein (a) levels in chronic kidney disease

👁 43
⬇ 23
How to Cite
Radhakrishnan, S., Indirajith, V., Chandran, P., Subramanyam, G., Ramu, M., Kandhi, S., & Sasikala, P. M. (2022). A cross-sectional study to assess proteinuria and lipoprotein (a) levels in chronic kidney disease. EUREKA: Health Sciences, (4), 32-38. https://doi.org/10.21303/2504-5679.2022.002567
Medicine and Dentistry