Urinary schistosomiasis: risk factors and symptoms among school adolescents in Kaduna State, Nigeria
Improper waste disposal, unsafe water and indiscriminate water-contact activities are major factors enhancing continuous spread of schistosomiasis in Nigeria. Many water bodies are prone to contamination with human wastes directly discharged into them or due to surface runoff, and are infested with parasites. Open defecation and discharge of household sewage into water channels is still practiced. Children conduct activities in these water bodies, thereby exposing themselves to infections with schistomes among other pathogens. Urine samples (10 mL each) were collected from 600 consented school adolescents across six Local Government Areas of Kaduna State, Nigeria. Information on their water-contact activities were obtained by means of questionnaires. Urine sediment was examined for Schistosoma haematobium eggs by microscopy. No infection was recorded in adolescents who had awareness about the disease. Those who engaged in swimming (9.2 %, OR=2.2) and fishing (10.3 %, OR=2.1) were significantly more infected than those who did not (P≤0.05). Adolescents who worked on irrigated farms (9.0 %, OR=1.4), washed clothes in rivers (9.0 %, OR=1.6), or fetch water from rivers for domestic purpose (10.0 %) were more infected than others who did not engage in those activities. Therefore, swimming and fishing are important factors enhancing the spread of schistosomiasis among school adolescents in Kaduna State. Irrigation farming, washing of clothes in rivers or fetching water from rivers exposed the adolescents to schistosome infections. Widespread awareness campaigns, provision safe water to communities, and standard water-based recreational centers are paramount
Schistosomiasis. WHO. Available at: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/schistosomiasis
Cheesbrough, M. (2005). District Laboratory Practice in Tropical Countries, Part I. Cambridge University Press. doi: https://doi.org/10.1017/cbo9780511581304
Parasites - Schistosomiasis. CDC. Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/parasites/schistosomiasis/index.html
Shiff, C. (2015). Accurate diagnostics for schistosomiasis: a new role for PCR? Dove Press, 4, 23–29. doi: https://doi.org/10.2147/rip.s74319
Kanwai, S., Ndams, I. S., Kogi, E., Gyem, Z. G., Hena, J. S. (2011). Urinary schistosomiasis infection in Dumbin Dutse, Igabi Local Government Area, Kaduna State, Nigeria. Science World Journal, 6 (3). Available at: https://www.ajol.info/index.php/swj/article/view/82196
Bishop, H. G. (2017). Menace of Schistosomiasis: Its True Neglected Nature in Nigeria. MOJ Public Health, 6 (5). doi: https://doi.org/10.15406/mojph.2017.06.00186
Oyibo, P. G., Uneke, C. J., Oyibo, I. A. (2011). Impact of Schistosoma haematobium infection on the body mass index of rural school children on Ebonyi State, South-east Nigeria. African Journal of Tropical Medicine and Biomedical Research, 2 (1), 67–72.
Ibironke, O. A., Shiff, C., Garba, A., Phillips, A. E., Lamine, S. M. (2011). Diagnosis of Schistosoma haematobium by Detection of Specific DNA Fragments from Filtered Urine Samples. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 84 (6), 998–1001. doi: https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.2011.10-0691
Brindley, P. J., Hotez, P. J. (2013). Break Out: Urogenital Schistosomiasis and Schistosoma haematobium Infection in the Post-Genomic Era. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 7 (3), e1961. doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0001961
Hotez, P. J., Fenwick, A. (2009). Schistosomiasis in Africa: An Emerging Tragedy in Our New Global Health Decade. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 3 (9), e485. doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0000485
Adenowo, A. F., Oyinloye, B. E., Ogunyinka, B. I., Kappo, A. P. (2015). Impact of human schistosomiasis in sub-Saharan Africa. The Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases, 19 (2), 196–205. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bjid.2014.11.004
Sarkinfada, F., Oyebanji, A. A., Sadiq, I. A., Ilyasu, Z. (2009). Urinary schistosomiasis in the Danjarima community in Kano, Nigeria. The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries, 3 (06), 452–457. doi: https://doi.org/10.3855/jidc.417
Nour, N. M. (2010). Schistosomiasis: health effects on women. Reviews in Obstetrics and Gynecology, 3 (1), 28–32.
Mohager, M. O., Mohager, S. O., Kaddam, L. A. (2014). The association between shistosomiasis and enteric fever in a single schistosoma endemic area in Sudan. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, 5 (6), 2181–2184. doi: https://doi.org/10.13040/ijpsr.0975-8232.5(6).2181-84
Bishop, H. G., Inabo, H. I., Ella, E. E. (2016). Prevalence and intensity of urinary schistosomiasis and their effects on packed cell volume of pupils in Jaba LGA, Nigeria. Edorium Journal of Microbiology, 2, 13–26. doi: https://doi.org/10.5348/m08-2016-5-oa-3
Ross, A. G. P., Bartley, P. B., Sleigh, A. C., Olds, G. R., Li, Y., Williams, G. M., McManus, D. P. (2002). Schistosomiasis. New England Journal of Medicine, 346 (16), 1212–1220. doi: https://doi.org/10.1056/nejmra012396
The causes and impacts of neglected tropical and zoonotic diseases: opportunities for integrated intervention strategies (2011). National Academies Press, Washington (DC). doi: https://doi.org/10.17226/13087
Luka, S. A., Ajogi, I., Umoh, J. U. (2001). Schistosomiasis among school children in Lere Local Government Area, Kaduna State, Nigeria. Journal of Tropical Biosciences, 1 (1), 106–111.
Dawaki, S., Al-Mekhlafi, H. M., Ithoi, I., Ibrahim, J., Abdulsalam, A. M., Ahmed, A. et al. (2015). The Menace of Schistosomiasis in Nigeria: Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices Regarding Schistosomiasis among Rural Communities in Kano State. PLOS ONE, 10 (11), e0143667. doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0143667
Poole, H., Terlouw, D. J., Naunje, A., Mzembe, K., Stanton, M., Betson, M. et al. (2014). Schistosomiasis in pre-school-age children and their mothers in Chikhwawa district, Malawi with notes on characterization of schistosomes and snails. Parasites & Vectors, 7 (1). doi: https://doi.org/10.1186/1756-3305-7-153
Ekpo, U. F., Oluwole, A. S., Abe, E. M., Etta, H. E., Olamiju, F., Mafiana, C. F. (2012). Schistosomiasis in infants and pre-school-aged children in sub-Saharan Africa: implication for control. Parasitology, 139 (7), 835–841. doi: https://doi.org/10.1017/s0031182012000029
Bishop, H. G., Akoh, R. I. (2018). Risk factors, symptoms and effects of urinary schistosomiasis on anthropometric indices of school children in Zaria, Kaduna state, Nigeria. Open Access Journal of Science, 2 (1). doi: https://doi.org/10.15406/oajs.2018.02.00045
Bishop, H. G., Ahmadu, J. M. (2018). Schistosoma haematobium and Klebsiella pneumoniae co-infections, antibiotic susceptibility and multiple antibiotic resistance index in school children in Zaria, Nigeria. Health Research, 2, 31–33. Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/328937380_Schistosoma_haematobium_and_Klebsiella_pneumoniae_co-Infections_antibiotic_susceptibility_and_multiple_antibiotic_resistance_index_in_school_children_in_Zaria_Nigeria
Morenikeji, O., Quazim, J., Omoregie, C., Hassan, A., Nwuba, R., Anumudu, C. et al. (2014). A cross-sectional study on urogenital schistosomiasis in children; haematuria and proteinuria as diagnostic indicators in an endemic rural area of Nigeria. African Health Sciences, 14 (2), 390. doi: https://doi.org/10.4314/ahs.v14i2.15
Van Der Werf, M. J., De Vlas, S. J. (2004). Diagnosis of urinary schistosomiasis: a novel approach to compare bladder pathology measured by ultrasound and three methods for hematuria detection. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 71 (1), 98–106. doi: https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.2004.71.98
Omenesa, H. O., Bishop, H. G., Raji, H. M. (2015). Prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis among pupils attending primary schools in Bomo Village, Zaria-Nigeria. International Journal of Research in Engineering and Science, 3 (5), 14–19. Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/280729444_Prevalence_of_urinary_schistosomiasis_among_pupils_attending_primary_schools_in_Bomo_village_Zaria-Nigeria
👁 22 ⬇ 25
Copyright (c) 2023 Henry Gabriel Bishop, Helen Ileigo Inabo, Elijah Ekah Ella, Mohammed Bello
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Our journal abides by the Creative Commons CC BY copyright rights and permissions for open access journals.
Authors, who are published in this journal, agree to the following conditions:
1. The authors reserve the right to authorship of the work and pass the first publication right of this work to the journal under the terms of a Creative Commons CC BY, which allows others to freely distribute the published research with the obligatory reference to the authors of the original work and the first publication of the work in this journal.
2. The authors have the right to conclude separate supplement agreements that relate to non-exclusive work distribution in the form in which it has been published by the journal (for example, to upload the work to the online storage of the journal or publish it as part of a monograph), provided that the reference to the first publication of the work in this journal is included.