EUREKA: Life Sciences <p><strong>EUREKA</strong>:&nbsp;<strong>Life Sciences</strong><strong>&nbsp;</strong>– scientific journal whose main aim is to publish materials allowed to see&nbsp;<strong><em>new discoveries at the intersection of life sciences.</em></strong></p> en-US <p>Our journal abides by the <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Creative Commons CC BY</a> copyright rights and permissions for open access journals.</p> <p>Authors, who are published in this journal, agree to the following conditions:</p> <p>1. The authors reserve the right to authorship of the work and pass the first publication right of this work to the journal under the terms of a <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Creative Commons CC BY</a>, which allows others to freely distribute the published research with the obligatory reference to the authors of the original work and the first publication of the work in this journal.</p> <p>&nbsp;2. The authors have the right to conclude separate supplement agreements that relate to non-exclusive work distribution in the form in which it has been published by the journal (for example, to upload the work to the online storage of the journal or publish it as part of a monograph), provided that the reference to the first publication of the work in this journal is included.</p> (Helen Klimashevska) (Helen Klimashevska) Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0300 OJS 60 Effect of sodium chloride on physiological and biochemical indices of wheat and maize genotypes <p><strong>Aim</strong>. Study the effect of sodium chloride on the physiological and biochemical characteristics of wheat and maize genotypes, to identify varieties tolerant to salinity. To create new salt-tolerant varieties of wheat and maize, a comparative analysis of the physiological and biochemical parameters of the parental and hybrid plants was carried out. <strong>Methods. </strong>Physiological parameters such as chlorophyll content, relative water content, and PSII activity have been studied in parental forms and hybrids. <strong>Results. </strong>Based on the physiological indices determined during the grain filling stage, the highest tolerance was manifested by the parental forms, Garabagh, Gobustan, and the hybrids, ♀Garabagh×♂Gobustan, ♀Garabagh×♂Mirbashir, ♀Garabagh×♂Sharg. The varieties Gurur and Zagatala-68 and hybrid “Gurur×Zagatala-68” were resistant to 200 mmol salt concentration.The varietiesofmaize Gurur and Zagatala-68 were resistant to 200 mmol salt concentration</p> Mayakhanim Ali Khanishova, K. R. Tagiyeva, Ibrahim Vahab Azizov Copyright (c) 2022 Mayakhanim Ali Khanishova, K. R. Tagiyeva, Ibrahim Vahab Azizov Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0300 Morphological characteristics of summer truffle (Tuber aestivum Vittad.) from Bosnia and Herzegovina <p>The aim of this paper is to present as accurately as possible the morphological characteristics of the summer truffle, found in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and to compare them with the characteristics of the previously described specimens in other countries and regions.</p> <p>Well-developed fruiting bodies of summer truffles (<em>Tuber aestivum </em>Vittad.) were found in oak and beech forests on calcareous soils in Bosnia and Herzegovina with the help of trained dogs.</p> <p>On the basis of a representative sample, composed of specimens, collected during three consecutive truffle seasons, the following were analyzed: shape, size and mass of ascocarps, structure of the harvest, gleba color, size and shape of ascospores.</p> <p>It was found, that predominant geometric shape of their fruiting bodies is ellipsoid with an average mass of 44.3&nbsp;g. Most acocarps weighed less than 20&nbsp;g. As the weight of the pieces increases, their frequency decreases, so that ascocarps over 60&nbsp;g participate in number with only 20&nbsp;% and by weight with 47.2&nbsp;% of the total yield. The length of spores ranges from 26.0 to 35.8&nbsp;μm, with an average of 30.3&nbsp;μm, while the width of spores varies from 17.2 to 26.1&nbsp;μm, with an average of 21.3&nbsp;μm. The Q-shape parameter takes values in a wide range from 1.16, which roughly corresponds to the globular shape, to 1.64 for the distinctly ellipsoidal shape.</p> <p>In sum, the shape and size of the summer truffle ascocarps and spores native to Bosnia and Herzegovina fit the general picture of this taxon.</p> Srđan Ljubojević, Ladislav Vasilišin, Goran Vučić, Ana Velemir Copyright (c) 2022 Srđan Ljubojević, Ladislav Vasilišin, Goran Vučić, Ana Velemir Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0300 Investigation of the species composition and harmfulness of dominant phytophages of onions in the Right-Bank Forest-Steppe of Ukraine <p>The research is aimed at studying the species composition, dynamics of the number and harmfulness of dominant pests, which is extremely important for the development and improvement of elements of the onion protection system. After all, the analysis of literature sources showed insufficient information about the distribution and harmfulness of the main phytophages under modern conditions of growing onions in the Right Bank Forest-Steppe of Ukraine.</p> <p>We conducted the monitoring of the phytosanitary condition of onion crops during 2017–2020 and determined the species composition of dominant phytophages. We studied the complex of soil pests: larvae of <em>Melolontha&nbsp;sp.</em>, the population density of which over the years of research was 0.8–2.5&nbsp;specimens/m<sup>2</sup>, larvae of <em>Elateridae</em>&nbsp;sp., or click beetles (wireworms) – 0.9–2.2&nbsp;specimens/m<sup>2</sup> and <em>Gryllotalpa&nbsp;gryllotalpa</em>&nbsp;L. – 2.5&nbsp;specimens/m<sup>2</sup>. Dominant species of phytophages in onion crops included onion fly (<em>Delia&nbsp;Antigua&nbsp;</em>Mg.), onion thrips (<em>Trips&nbsp;tabaci&nbsp;</em>Lind.), and <em>Ceuthorrhynchus&nbsp;jakovlevi&nbsp;</em>Schultze.</p> <p>The four most vulnerable phases of growth and development of onions before colonization and damage by major phytophages were identified:</p> <p>1)&nbsp;phase of leaf development (a primary shoot) (ВВСН 1–19);</p> <p>2)&nbsp;phase of the beginning of thickening of leaf base – bulb formation (ВВСН 41–43);</p> <p>3)&nbsp;phase of bulb formation – beginning of leaf splitting (ВВСН 45–47);</p> <p>4)&nbsp;phase of the completion of growth and development (state of physiological rest) (ВВСН 48–49)</p> Volodimir Kudla, Hanna Tkalenko, Vytalya Ihnat, Volodimir Kudla Copyright (c) 2022 Volodimir Kudla, Hanna Tkalenko, Vytalya Ihnat, Volodimir Kudla Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0300 Influence of adding wild berry powders on the quality of pasta products <p>Pasta is a popular food item among consumers all over the world. They have high energy value, low cost and long shelf life. However, the biological value of these products is quite low. Adding components rich in dietary fiber, vitamins and&nbsp;minerals to their composition will significantly improve their nutritional value. The purpose of the article is to analyze the possibility of producing pasta with the addition of derivatives from the processing of wild berries <em>Sambucus nigra</em>, <em>Viburnum opulus</em>, <em>Hippophae rhamnoides L.</em>, which have a rich nutrient composition and are available raw materials. The technology, developed in the work for processing berries by osmotic dehydration, allows the use of gentle drying modes, which contributes to the maximum preservation of their biological value. Sensory evaluation of pasta was carried out according to the Croatian Official Methods, moisture content of pasta was determined by drying to constant weight. Sensory analysis of pasta showed that the addition of powders does not lead to a deterioration in their quality. Their appearance, taste, smell, shape and elasticity are improved. The quality of the pasta samples, containing 5&nbsp;% of the powder, was determined as “good” according to the results of the evaluation of the tasting group. And the samples with a powder content of 10&nbsp;% have a "high" quality. The addition of powders has practically no effect on the drying conditions and moisture content of the finished products. With the addition of <em>Viburnum opulus</em> powders, the moisture content is reduced compared to controls. Humidity of all samples is within the permissible limits, which indicates their resistance to storage</p> Maryna Samilyk, Evgenia Demidova, Natalia Bolgova, Anatoly Kapitonenko, Tetiana Cherniavska Copyright (c) 2022 Maryna Samilyk, Evgenia Demidova, Natalia Bolgova, Anatoly Kapitonenko, Tetiana Cherniavska Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0300 Genetic testing of allelic variants of PIZ (GLU342Lys, RS28929474) and PIS (GLU264Val, RS17580) of SERPINA1 gene in children with bronchial asthma <p>According to world publications, mutations in the <em>SERPINA1</em> gene may be a genetic risk factor for severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and, consequently, rapid progression of respiratory dysfunction. This disease leads to a decrease in the level of alpha-1-antitrypsin protein. It is inherited by autosomal recessive type, but there are registered cases of codominance. In the absence of treatment, diseases of the respiratory system become chronic and lead to disability in adulthood.</p> <p>Early diagnosis of AAT deficiency is important to prevent complications and reduce mortality among people with this pathology. Due to these factors, genetic testing of <em>SERPINA1</em> gene mutations in children with chronic lung diseases is appropriate to detect and prevent severe complications, associated with AATD.</p> <p>The aim of this work is to improve the effectiveness of early diagnosis of AAT deficiency in children with bronchial asthma and recurrent obstructive bronchitis by identifying different genotypes and phenotypes of A1AT deficiency, studying their relationship with the clinical course of respiratory diseases in children</p> Ivanna Shymanska, Оlena Trutiak, Оlena Lychkovska, Halyna Makukh, Hayane Akopyan Copyright (c) 2022 Ivanna Shymanska, Оlena Trutiak, Оlena Lychkovska, Halyna Makukh, Hayane Akopyan Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0300 Evaluation of cytotoxic activity of live toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites and toxoplasma antigen on MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line <p>The aim of this study was to investigate the cytotoxic potency of live <em>Toxoplasma gondii</em> tachyzoites as well as <em>Toxoplasma</em> antigen on MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line. Cancer cell lines are considered an essential preliminary step towards <em>in-vitro </em>investigation of the potential antineoplastic impact of novel chemotherapeutic agents. Pathogens, including viruses, bacteria, and parasites are noticeably under investigation, considering their potential antineoplastic activity. Some have attained a steady position in the clinical field as hepatitis B virus, human papilloma virus and BCG immunization. <em>Toxoplasma gondii</em> is an apicomplexan parasite with promising antineoplastic activity. In this study, live <em>Toxoplasma</em> tachyzoites provoked a direct cytotoxic effect on MCF-7 in a dose dependent manner, while <em>Toxoplasma</em> antigen didn’t induce such impact.</p> <p>Skipping the direct cytotoxic effect of <em>Toxoplasma</em> antigen doesn’t totally divert the possible antineoplastic activity of <em>Toxoplasma</em> antigen. Potential alternative immune mediated mechanisms could be an alternative. Further <em>in-vivo </em>studies in different cancer models are mandatory to investigate the underlying mechanisms of antineoplastic activity of <em>Toxoplasma gondii</em></p> Maha M. Eissa, Maha R. Gaafar, Layla K. Younis, Cherine A. Ismail, Nahla El Skhawy Copyright (c) 2022 Maha M. Eissa, Maha R. Gaafar, Layla K. Younis, Cherine A. Ismail, Nahla El Skhawy Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0300