Effect of school category on adjustment of re-admitted teenage mothers in secondary schools

Keywords: adjustment, re-admitted teenage mothers, school categories, secondary schools, Kenya


The object of this research: The study examined the adjustment of re-admitted teenage mothers on the bases of school categories in selected secondary schools in Kenya.

Investigated problem: There are reported low levels of adjustment among readmitted teen mothers in secondary schools in Kenya as many of them perform poorly in academics.

Methods: The sequential explanatory design was adopted. A modified Student Adjustment to School Questionnaire (SASQ) and interview schedule were used to collect data.

The main scientific results: The findings indicated that there was a significant difference [t (164)=4.22, p<.05] established in overall adjustment of re-admitted teenage mothers between the two types of schools.

The area of practical use of the research results: This is for teacher counsellors, school principals and parents. School principals should be trained on comprehensive guidance and counselling skills so that they are equipped to provide support to the re-admitted teen mothers in schools


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Christine Mwajuma Opondo, Maseno University

Department of Psychology

Peter Jairo Odhiambo Aloka, University of Witwatersrand

Wits School of Education


Julia, M., Veni, B. (2012). An analysis of the factors affecting students’ adjustment at a university in Zimbabwe. International Education Studies, 5 (6), 244–251. doi: http://doi.org/10.5539/ies.v5n6p244

Sharma, S. (2016). Adjustment: process, achievement, characteristics, measurement and dimensions. International Journal of Academic Research, 3 (1-2), 56–62. Available at: http://ijar.org.in/stuff/issues/v3-i1(2)/v3-i1(2)-a006.pdf

Opondo, C. M., Aloka, P. J. O. (2020). Guidance and counselling programme and overall adjustment of teenage mothers: Evidence from secondary schools in Kenya. The Open Psychology Journal, 13, 133–143. doi: http://doi.org/10.2174/1874350102013010133

Taylor, M. A., Pastor, D. A. (2007). A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 67 (6), 1002–1018. doi: http://doi.org/10.1177/0013164406299125

Grigorieva, M. V. (2005). Theoretical and applied aspects of the problem of adjustment in psychology. The problems of social psychology of personality. Saint Petersburg: Azbuka, 376.

Salami, S. O. (2011). Psychosocial predictors of adjustment among first year college of education students. US-China Education Review, 8 (2), 239–248. Available at: https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED519567.pdf

Van Der Klink, J. L., Blonk, R. W. B., Schene, A. H., Van Dijk, F. J. H. (2003). Reducing long term sickness absence by an activating intervention in adjustment disorders: A cluster randomized controlled design. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 60 (6), 429–437. doi: http://doi.org/10.1136/oem.60.6.429

Mollborn, S., Dennis, J. A. (2011). Ready or Not: Predicting High and Low School Readiness Among Teen Parents’ Children. Child Indicators Research, 5 (2), 253–279. doi: http://doi.org/10.1007/s12187-011-9126-2

Azevedo J., L. Lopez-Calva, E. P. (2012). Is the Baby to Blame? An inquiry into the consequences of early childbearing. World Bank Policy Research. Working Paper 6074. doi: http://doi.org/10.1596/1813-9450-6074

Azevedo, J. M., Favara, S., Haddock, L., Lopez-Calva, M., Muller, E., Perova, P. (2012). Teenage pregnancy and opportunities in Latin America and the caribbean: on teenage fertility decisions, poverty and economic achievement. Washington: World Bank.

Arceo-Gomez, E., Campos-Vazquez, R. (2014). Teenage pregnancy in Mexico: Evolution and Consequences. Latin American Journal of Economics, 51, 109–146. doi: http://doi.org/10.7764/laje.51.1.109

Mollborn, S., Morningstar, E. (2009). Investigating the relationship between teenage child bearing and psychological distress using longitudinal evidence. The Journal of Health and Social Behaviour, 50, 310–326. doi: http://doi.org/10.1177/002214650905000305

Nyaga, F. G. (2015). Relationship between social support and self-esteem among Teenage mothers attending Pumwani Maternity hospital in Nairobi County, Kenya. Kenyatta University. Available at: https://ir-library.ku.ac.ke/handle/123456789/14429

Wekesa, V. (2014). Re-admission policy and KCSE performance in Bungoma north Sub-county, Kenya. International Journal of Innovative Research and Development, 3 (7), 436–441.

Littleton, L., Engebretson, J. (2005). Maternity Nursing Care. New York: Delmar Learning.

Jones, C., Whitfield, C., Seymour, J. (2019). ‘Other Girls’: A qualitative exploration of teenage mothers’ views on teen pregnancy in contemporaries. Sexuality & Culture, 23, 760–773. doi: http://doi.org/10.1007/s12119-019-09589-4

Chigona, A., Chetty, R. (2007). Girls’ education in South Africa special consideration mothers as learner. Journal of Education for International Development 3 (1), 1–17. Available at: http://digitalknowledge.cput.ac.za/handle/11189/7366

Strategic plan 2011–2014 (2011). Pretoria, Government Printers.

Sessional Paper No. 1 of 2005: A policy framework for Education, training and research (2003). Nairobi: Government Printer.

Gender policy in Education (2007). Nairobi: Government Printer.

Vandana, C. (2013). A study on adjustment of higher secondary school students of Durg district. OSR Journal of Research and Methods in Education, 1 (1), 50–52. doi: http://doi.org/10.9790/7388-0115052

Kaur, G., Singh, S. (2019). Adjustment patterns of adolescent students in relation to academic stress. International Journal of Research and Analytical Reviews, 6 (1), 508–512. Available at: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/8d8f/1528e140ca8c50f00c78a5fffa3640ae6d65.pdf

Sullivan, A., Leonard, D., Joshi, H. (2012). Single sex and co-educational schooling: What are the Social and family outcomes? Longitudinal and Life Course Studies, 3 (1), 137–157. doi: http://doi.org/10.14301/llcs.v3i1.148

Paramanik, J., Saha, B., Mondal, C. (2014). Adjustment of Secondary School Students with Respect to Gender and Residence. American Journal of Educational Research, 2 (12), 1138–1143. doi: http://doi.org/10.12691/education-2-12-2

Park, H., Behrman, J. R., Choi, J. (2013). Causal effects of single-sex schools on college entrance exams and college attendance: random assignment in Seoul high schools. Demography, 50 (2), 447–469. doi: http://doi.org/10.1007/s13524-012-0157-1

Karplak, C. P., Buchanan, P., Hosey, S., Smith, A. (2007). University students from single –sex and co-educational high schools: Differences in majors and attitude at a Catholic University. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 31, 282–289. doi: http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-6402.2007.00371.x

Bender, A., Litfin, J. S. (2015). The effects of gender grouping on female students’ participation in physical education. Available at: https://sophia.stkate.edu/maed/96

Malik, R. (2013). Students personality development. single sex versus co-educational schools in Pakistan. Asian Journal of Management Sciences and Education, 2 (3), 68–76. Available at: http://www.ajmse.leena-luna.co.jp/AJMSEPDFs/Vol.2(3)/AJMSE2013(2.3-07).pdf

Vishal, P., Kanji, S. M. (2014). Adjustment of Boys & Girls in School Level Students. The International Journal of Indian Psychology, 4 (80) 31–37.

Raju, M. V. R., Rahamtulla, T. K. (2007). Adjustment problems among school students. Journal of the Indian Academy of Applied Psychology, 33 (1), 73–79.

Creswell, J. W (2005). Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative approaches to research. Upper Saddle River: Merrill/Pearson Education.

Wipulanusat, W., Panuwatwanich, K., Stewart, R. A., Sunkpho, J.; Panuwatwanich, K., Ko, Ch. (Eds.) (2020). Applying mixed methods sequential explanatory design to innovation management. The 10th International Conference on Engineering, Project, and Production Management. Singapore: Springer, 485–495. doi: http://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-1910-9_40

Tashakkori, A., Teddlie, C. (1998). Mixed methodology: Combining qualitative and quantitative approaches. Applied Social Research Methods Series. Vol. 46. Thousand Oaks: Sage.

Mason, M. (2010). Sample size and saturation in PhD Studies using qualitative interviews. Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung / Forum: Qualitative Social Research, 11 (3). doi: http://doi.org/10.17169/fqs-11.3.1428

Andy (2009). Discovering statistics using SPSS. SAGE Publication Ltd.

Pallant, J. (2007). SPSS survival manual: A Step by step to data analysis using SPSS for windows (Version 15). Sydney: Allen and Unwin.

👁 24
⬇ 23
How to Cite
Opondo, C. M., & Aloka, P. J. O. (2022). Effect of school category on adjustment of re-admitted teenage mothers in secondary schools. ScienceRise, (3), 48-56. https://doi.org/10.21303/2313-8416.2022.002534
Social communications in the society development