Keywords: Hofstede, Albania, private hospitals, culture dimensions, shifting of scores


The purpose of this paper is to highlight the changes that Albanian cultural dimensions’ scores have undergone over time. Hofstede’s Value Survey Module 2013 (VSM 2013) has been applied to examine the six dimensions of culture; power distance, individualism, masculinity, uncertainty avoidance, long term orientation and indulgence. The survey data (N=387) was collected in the two largest private hospitals in Albania. Globalization, technological developments, economical flourishing and crisis, war and peace, influence the shifting of national cultural dimensions’ scores toward negative or positive values [1]. In this study we aim to show the shifting of Albanian culture value scores in time, and compare the results with the ones predicted by the researchers of the field. The results obtained show a negative shift on Albanian culture dimension score of power distance, individualism, long term orientation and indulgence, and a positive shift on masculinity and uncertainty avoidance values. Implications for researchers of the field are discussed in the paper.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Irma Gjana, Epoka University

Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences

Xhimi Hysa, Epoka University

Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences



Hofstede, G., Hofstede, G. J., Minkov, M. (2010). Cultures and Organizations. Software of the Mind. Intercultural Cooperation and Its Importance for Survival. McGraw-Hill Companies Inc., 561.

Schein, E. H. (2010). Organizational Culture and Leadership. Published by Jossey-Bass, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 400.

Nazarian, A., Atkinson, P. (2013). Impact of Culture on Leadership Style: The case of Iranian Organizations. World Applied Sciences Journal, 28 (6), 770–777.

Pfajfar, G., Uhan, M., Fang, T., Redek, T. (2016). Slovenian business culture – How proverbs shape dynamic leadership styles. Journal of East European Management Studies, 21 (4), 433–457. doi: http://doi.org/10.5771/0949-6181-2016-4-433

Dimitrov, K. (2014). Geert Hoftede et al’s Set of National Cultural Dimensions – Popularity and Criticisms. Economic Alternatives, 2, 30–60.

Matijevič, S., Raguž, I. V., Filipovıč, D. (2015). The Role of National Culture in Contemporary Business Environment, Management and Organization. DIEM 2015. Scientific Conference on Innovation, Leadership and Entrepreneurship.

Rahj, E., Budak, J., Anic, I. (2015). Hofstede’s Culture Survey in Croatia: Examining Regional Differences. Društvena Istraživanja, 25 (3), 309–327. doi: http://doi.org/10.5559/di.25.3.02

Tkeshelashvili, N. (2009).The Effects of Culture on the Leadership Style in Georgia. IBSU Scientific Journal, 3 (2), 115–129.

Daft, R. L. (2010). Organization Theory and design. Ohio: South-Western Cengage Learning, 649.

Bosson, E. K., Boolaky, M., Gungaphul, M. (2016). The Influence of National Culture on Marketing Strategies in Africa. Journal of Business Administration Research, 5 (2), 83–100. doi: http://doi.org/10.5430/jbar.v5n2p83

Sarkar, S., Huang, K. L. (2012). Do cultural groups differ in their attitudes towards unions? Evidence from Indian and Taiwanese samples. Asian Business & Management, 11 (4), 395–423. doi: http://doi.org/10.1057/abm.2012.5

Peterlin, J., Dimovski, V., Uhan, M., Penger, S. (2014). Integrating stakeholders’ multiple intelligences into the leadership development of a cross-cultural entity: Evidence from the CI Ljubjana. Journal of East European Management Studies, 20 (2), 202–225.

Nguyen, A. N. (2016). A Cross-Cultural Study on e-Government Services Delivery. The Electronic Journal Information Systems Evaluation, 19 (2), 121–134.

Rugman, A. M., Collinson, S. (2012). International Business. Pearson Publishing, 800.

Beugelsdijk, S., Maseland, R., Hoorn, A. (2013). Are Hofstede’s Culture Dimensions Stable over Time? A Generational Cohort Analysis. doi: http://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2336893

Smith, P. B. (2006). When elephants fight, the grass gets trampled: the GLOBE and Hofstede projects. Journal of International Business Studies, 37 (6), 915–921. doi: http://doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8400235

Venaik S., Brewer P.; Cantwell, J., Kijak, T. (Eds.) (2008). Contradictions in national culture: Hofstede vs. GLOBE. In Proceedings of the 50th Annual Meeting of the Academy of International Business, 274.

Kirkman, B. L., Lowe, K. B., Gibson, C. B. (2006). A qaurter century of Culture’s Consequences: A review of empirical research incorporating Hofstede’s Cultural Values framework. Journal of Inernational Business Studies, 37, 285–320. doi: http://doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8400202

Robbins, S. P., Judge, T. A. (2013). Organizational Behavior. Pearson Education Limited, 720.

Tian, K., Borges, L. (2011). Cross-Cultural Issues in Marketing Communications: An Anthropological Perspective of International Business. International Journal of China Marketing, 2, 110–126.

Pires, D. A., Rocha, T. V., Borini, F. M., Rossetto, D. E. (2015). International Marketing in Multinational Company Subsidiaries in Emerging Markets: A Multidimensional Approach. International Marketing in the Fast Changing World, 157–177.

Minkov, M., Hofstede, G. (2012). Hofstede's fifth dimension: New evidence from the World Values Survey. Journal of cross-cultural psychology, 43 (1), 3–14. doi: http://doi.org/10.1177/0022022110388567

Value Survey Module (2013). Available at: https://geerthofstede.com/

👁 243
⬇ 160
How to Cite
Gjana, I., & Hysa, X. (2020). HOFSTEDE’S CULTURE VALUES SURVEY IN ALBANIAN PRIVATE HOSPITALS. EUREKA: Social and Humanities, (3), 41-50. https://doi.org/10.21303/2504-5571.2020.001325
Social Sciences