Stimulating creative behaviors in the work environment: influences of employee engagement, authentic leadership, and human capital factors on employee creativity

Keywords: engagement, transparency, ethics, competencies, banks, Nigeria


This paper investigates employee engagement, authentic leadership and human capital factors’ influences on the creative behaviors of bank employees within Nigeria’s banking industry. This investigation’s sample was taken from a selection of banks (Guarantee Trust Bank Plc, First Bank Plc, and United Bank For Africa Plc) across the Lagos and Ibadan cities of Lagos and Oyo States, Nigeria. This paper adopts a survey study approach, and questionnaires were randomly circulated. However, out of the 300 questionnaires distributed, 273 were fit to be used for the research and analyzed via statistical packages for social sciences (SPSS vs. 26). The current findings suggest that the younger the bank employees, the more creative they are. The higher their educational level and work experience, the more creative they are within Nigeria’s banking industry. The current investigation further established that employee engagement and authentic leadership significantly and positively influence creativity amongst employees within Nigeria’s banking industry. Therefore, the management of the Nigerian banks needs to consider spurring of employees’ sense of belonging and engagement to help stimulate and nurture their creativity. They should also consider essential authentic leadership training for their managers to help them discharge their leadership functions, related to the positive development of their subordinates’ creative behaviors and the human capital factors in stimulating employee creativity.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Foluso Adekanmbi, College of Business & Economics, University of Johannesburg

Department of Industrial Psychology and People Management

Wilfred Isioma Ukpere, College of Business & Economics, University of Johannesburg

Department of Industrial Psychology and People Management


Oldham, G. R., Cummings, A. (1996). Employee creativity: personal and contextual factors at work. Academy of Management Journal, 39 (3), 607–634. doi:

George, J. M., Zhou, J. (2002). Understanding when bad moods foster creativity and good ones don’t: The role of context and clarity of feelings. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87 (4), 687–697. doi:

Lu, V. N., Wirtz, J., Kunz, W. H., Paluch, S., Gruber, T., Martins, A., Patterson, P. G. (2020). Service robots, customers and service employees: what can we learn from the academic literature and where are the gaps? Journal of Service Theory and Practice, 30 (3), 361–391. doi:

Bäckström, I., Bengtsson, L. (2019). A mapping study of employee innovation: proposing a research agenda. European Journal of Innovation Management, 22 (3), 468–492. doi:

Bani-Melhem, S., Zeffane, R., Albaity, M. (2018). Determinants of employees’ innovative behavior. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 30 (3), 1601–1620. doi:

Mostafa, M. (2009). Modeling the efficiency of top Arab banks: A DEA–neural network approach. Expert Systems with Applications, 36 (1), 309–320. doi:

Shalley, C. E., Gilson, L. L. (2004). What leaders need to know: A review of social and contextual factors that can foster or hinder creativity. The Leadership Quarterly, 15 (1), 33–53. doi:

Olalere, T. O., Adenugba, A. A. (2013). Human capital development in First Bank of Nigeria PLC. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 4 (2), 783–783.

Amabile, T. M., Barsade, S. G., Mueller, J. S., Staw, B. M. (2005). Affect and Creativity at Work. Administrative Science Quarterly, 50 (3), 367–403. doi:

Kahn, W. A. (1990). Psychological Conditions of Personal Engagement and Disengagement at Work. Academy of Management Journal, 33 (4), 692–724. doi:

Rich, B. L., Lepine, J. A., Crawford, E. R. (2010). Job Engagement: Antecedents and Effects on Job Performance. Academy of Management Journal, 53 (3), 617–635. doi:

Edú-Valsania, S., Moriano, J. A., Molero, F. (2016). Authentic leadership and employee knowledge sharing behavior. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 37 (4), 487–506. doi:

Sadq, Z. M., Aljaf, N. A., Hasan, R. S. (2018). The role of human capital in achieving competitive advantages: An empirical study at knowledge private university/Erbil, Iraq. International Journal of Social Sciences & Educational Studies, 4 (4), 53–63. doi:

Li, M., Hsu, C. H. C. (2016). A review of employee innovative behavior in services. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 28 (12), 2820–2841. doi:

Ali, M., Ullah, S., Khan, P. (2009). Managing innovation and technology in developing countries. ArXiv Preprint arXiv: 0911.1514. Available at:

Saks, A. M., Gruman, J. A. (2014). What Do We Really Know About Employee Engagement? Human Resource Development Quarterly, 25 (2), 155–182. doi:

Fleming, J. H., Asplund, J. (2007). Human Sigma: Managing the employee-customer encounter Simon and Schuster. Gallup Press, 320.

Brad Shuck, M., Rocco, T. S., Albornoz, C. A. (2011). Exploring employee engagement from the employee perspective: implications for HRD. Journal of European Industrial Training, 35 (4), 300–325. doi:

McEwen, D. (2011). Employee Engagement: A Systemic Approach to High EmployeeEngagement. CGN & Associates, 4.

Baumruk, R. (2004). The missing link: The role of employee engagement in business success. Workspan, 47, 48–52.

Sundaray, B. K. (2011). Employee engagement: a driver of organizational effectiveness. European Journal of Business and Management, 3 (8), 53–59.

Saks, A. M. (2006). Antecedents and consequences of employee engagement. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 21 (7), 600–619. doi:

Harter, J. K., Schmidt, F. L., Hayes, T. L. (2002). Business-unit-level relationship between employee satisfaction, employee engagement, and business outcomes: A meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87 (2), 268–279. doi:

Biswas, S. (2011). Commitment, involvement, and satisfaction as predictors of employee performance. South Asian Journal of Management, 18 (2), 92–107. Available at:

Hakanen, J. J., Perhoniemi, R., Toppinen-Tanner, S. (2008). Positive gain spirals at work: From job resources to work engagement, personal initiative and work-unit innovativeness. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 73 (1), 78–91. doi:

Sanda, A., Arthur, N. A. D. (2017). Relational impact of authentic and transactional leadership styles on employee creativity: The role of work-related flow and climate for innovation. African Journal of Economic and Management Studies, 8 (3), 274–295. doi:

Shuck, B., Wollard, K. (2009). Employee Engagement and HRD: A Seminal Review of the Foundations. Human Resource Development Review, 9 (1), 89–110. doi:

Gardner, W. L., Avolio, B. J., Luthans, F., May, D. R., Walumbwa, F. (2005). “Can you see the real me?” A self-based model of authentic leader and follower development. The Leadership Quarterly, 16 (3), 343–372. doi:

Avolio, B. J., Reichard, R. J., Hannah, S. T., Walumbwa, F. O., Chan, A. (2009). A meta-analytic review of leadership impact research: Experimental and quasi-experimental studies. The Leadership Quarterly, 20 (5), 764–784. doi:

Cassar, V., Buttigieg, S. C. (2013). An examination of the relationship between authentic leadership and psychological well-being and the mediating role of meaningfulness at work. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 3 (5), 171–183. Available at:

Avolio, B. J., & Mhatre, K. H. (2012). Advances in theory and research on authentic leadership. The Oxford handbook of positive organizational scholarship. doi:

Alshammari, A., N. Almutairi, N., Fahad Thuwaini, S. (2015). Ethical Leadership: The Effect on Employees. International Journal of Business and Management, 10 (3). doi:

Semedo, A. S. D., Coelho, A. F. M., Ribeiro, N. M. P. (2016). Effects of authentic leadership, affective commitment and job resourcefulness on employees’ creativity and individual performance. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 37 (8), 1038–1055. doi:

Zubair, A., Kamal, A. (2015). Authentic leadership and creativity: the mediating role of work-related flow and psychological capital. Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 25 (1), 150–171.

Østergaard, A., Marinova, S. T. (2018). Human capital in the entrepreneurship ecosystem. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, 35 (3), 371–390. doi:

Daly, A., Hess, S., Patruni, B., Potoglou, D., Rohr, C. (2011). Using ordered attitudinal indicators in a latent variable choice model: a study of the impact of security on rail travel behaviour. Transportation, 39 (2), 267–297. doi:

Bontis, N., Fitz‐enz, J. (2002). Intellectual capital ROI: a causal map of human capital antecedents and consequents. Journal of Intellectual Capital, 3 (3), 223–247. doi:

Pil, F. K., Leana, C. (2009). Applying Organizational Research to Public School Reform: The Effects of Teacher Human and Social Capital on Student Performance. Academy of Management Journal, 52 (6), 1101–1124. doi:

Wang, L., Li, M., Abbey, C., Rozelle, S. (2018). Human capital and the middle-income trap: How many of China’s youth are going to high school? The Developing Economies, 56 (2), 82–103. doi:

Biedenbach, G., Hultén, P., Tarnovskaya, V. (2019). B2B brand equity: investigating the effects of human capital and relational trust. Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, 34 (1), 1–11. doi:

Yen, Y.-F. (2013). The impact of bank’s human capital on organizational performance: How innovation influences performance. Innovation, 15 (1), 112–127. doi:

Sipa, M. (2018). The factors determining the creativity of the human capital in the conditions of sustainable development. European Journal of Sustainable Development, 7 (2). doi:

Salehi, M., Farzaneh, M. (2018). The impact of board’s human capital on the relationship between board’s characteristics and firm’s performance in Iran. International Journal of Learning and Intellectual Capital, 15 (4), 293–308. doi:

Zareen, M., Razzaq, K., Mujtaba, B. G. (2014). Impact of Transactional, Transformational and Laissez-Faire Leadership Styles on Motivation: A Quantitative Study of Banking Employees in Pakistan. Public Organization Review, 15 (4), 531–549. doi:

Soane, E., Truss, C., Alfes, K., Shantz, A., Rees, C., Gatenby, M. (2012). Development and application of a new measure of employee engagement: the ISA Engagement Scale. Human Resource Development International, 15 (5), 529–547. doi:

Walumbwa, F. O., Avolio, B. J., Gardner, W. L., Wernsing, T. S., Peterson, S. J. (2007). Authentic Leadership: Development and Validation of a Theory-Based Measure†. Journal of Management, 34 (1), 89–126. doi:

Zhou, J., George, J. M. (2001). When Job Dissatisfaction Leads to Creativity: Encouraging the Expression of Voice. Academy of Management Journal, 44 (4), 682–696. doi:

👁 216
⬇ 264
How to Cite
Adekanmbi, F., & Ukpere, W. I. (2021). Stimulating creative behaviors in the work environment: influences of employee engagement, authentic leadership, and human capital factors on employee creativity. EUREKA: Social and Humanities, (5), 24-33.
Business, Management and Accounting