Television as a source of COVID-19 information: a qualitative inquiry into the experiences of the deaf during the pandemic
Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) came as a rude shock to all. Its emergence was sudden and its attendant effects on psychosocial adjustment of all citizens especially among the Deaf were traumatic. Thus, the need to access the required information about the virus became necessary. While information about COVID-19 came from various media sources, television as an audio-visual material remains one of the most reliable sources of COVID-19 to the deaf. However, issues of quality assurance and comprehensibility of televised COVID-19 related information remain a concern among the deaf during the pandemic. Thus, as there is scarcity of research reports on such circumstances among the deaf, this study explores the perceived quality of and comprehensibility of televised sign language interpreted COVID-19 briefing by the Nigerian deaf. The motor theory of sign language perception was used as a theoretical lens in this study. An individualised semi-structured interview was used to gather data that was used to achieve an answer to the research objectives. Thematic content analysis was employed for data analysis. The following themes resulted from the analysis: visibility, incomplete interpretation, Camera handlers’/Television stations’ inadequate knowledge of deafness and deaf communication processes and partial comprehension of interpreted COVID-19 briefings. Camera handlers and technical crew must ensure adequately illuminated interpreters space and a contrasting backdrop of picture-in-picture is ensured. Also, SLIs should endeavour to use a transparent face shield or adopt the 1.5m–2.5m physical distancing rule
Haleem, A., Javaid, M., Vaishya, R. (2020). Effects of COVID-19 pandemic in daily life. Current Medicine Research and Practice, 10 (2), 78–79. doi: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.cmrp.2020.03.011
Director-General’s Opening Remarks at the Media Briefing on COVID-19 (2020). World Health Organization. Available at: https://www.who.int/director-general/speeches/detail/who-director-general-s-opening-remarks-at-the-media-briefing-on-covid-19---11-march-2020 Last accessed: 21.05.2020
Coronavirus cases (2020). Worldometer (2020). https://www.worldometers.info/coronavirus/ Last accessed: 14.05.2020
Kumar, D., Malviya, R., Sharma, P. K. (2020). Corona Virus: A Review of COVID-19. Eurasian Journal of Medicine and Oncology, 4, 8–25. doi: http://doi.org/10.14744/ejmo.2020.51418
Marschark, M., Sapere, P., Convertino, C., Seewagen, R. (2005). Access to postsecondary education through sign language interpreting. Journal of Deaf Studies and deaf education, 10 (1), 38–50. doi: http://doi.org/10.1093/deafed/eni002
Adigun, O. T. (2020). Self-esteem, self-efficacy, self-concept and intimate image diffusion among Deaf adolescents: A structural equation model analysis. Heliyon, 6, e04742. doi: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e04742
Mba, P. O. (1995). Fundamentals of special education and vocational rehabilitation. Codat Publications.
Treat, S. (2016). Deaf education: Gallaudet university: How deaf education and special education is being advanced in Nigeria. Available at: https://prezi.com/ckdvqq0rv5cx/deaf-education/
Adigun, O. T., Mngomezulu T.P. (2020). ‘They Forget I’m Deaf’: Exploring the experience and perception of deaf pregnant women attending antenatal clinic/care in Ibadan, Nigeria. Annals of Global Health, 86 (1). doi: http://doi.org/10.5334/aogh.2942
Amzat, J., Aminu, K., Kolo, V. I., Akinyele, A. A., Ogundairo, J. A., Danjibo, M. C. (2020). Coronavirus outbreak in Nigeria: Burden and socio-medical response during the first 100 days. International Journal of Infectious Diseases, 98, 218–224. doi: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2020.06.067
Ebenso, B., Otu, A. (2020). Can Nigeria contain the COVID-19 outbreak using lessons from recent epidemics? The Lancet Global Health, 8 (6), e770. doi: http://doi.org/10.1016/s2214-109x(20)30101-7
Presidential Task Force on COVID-19 (2020). About PTF. Available at: https://statehouse.gov.ng/covid19/objectives/
O’Donnell, V. (2007). Television Criticism. London, New Delhi: Sage Publications.
Chioma, P. E. (2013). Television local contents; conduit for cultural learning in Nigeria? Oman Chapter of Arabian Journal of Business and Management Review, 2 (12), 26–40. doi: http://doi.org/10.12816/0002359
Sylvanus, E. P. (2018). A Brief History of TV and TV Music Practice in Nigeria. Muziki, 15 (1), 37–57. doi: http://doi.org/10.1080/18125980.2018.1432992
Statista (2020). Number of pay TV households in Nigeria from 2014 to 2023. Available at: https://www.statista.com/statistics/618860/nigeria-number-pay-tv-households/ Last accessed: 19.09.2020
McQuail, D. (2010). McQuail’s mass communication theory. London: Sage, 672.
Patrick, I., Samson, E. (2013). Television news perspective of conflict reporting: The Nigerian Television Authority as a reference point. Journal of media and communication studies, 5 (2), 12–19.
Timothy Adigun, O. (2019). Burnout among sign language interpreters in Africa. Journal of Gender, Information and Development in Africa, 8 (3), 91–109. doi: http://doi.org/10.31920/2050-4284/2019/8n3a5
Bevan, E. R. (2018). Best practice guide for mental health practitioners working with BSL/English interpreters. Available at: https://asli.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2018/03/MHIBP.-FINAL.pdf
Bosch-Baliarda, M., Soler-Vilageliu, O., Orero, P. (2020). Sign language interpreting on TV: a reception study of visual screen exploration in deaf signing users. MonTI. Monografías de Traducción e Interpretación, 12, 108–143. doi: http://doi.org/10.6035/monti.2020.12.04
Gökce, İ. (2018). Accessibility of the deaf to the television contents through sign language interpreting and SDH in Turkey. Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi Edebiyat Fakültesi Dergisi, 5 (1), 109–122.
Kurz, I., Mikulasek, B. (2004). Television as a source of information for the deaf and hearing impaired. Captions and sign language on Austrian TV. Meta: journal des traducteurs. Meta, 49 (1), 81–88. doi: http://doi.org/10.7202/009023ar
Kyle, J. G., Allsop, L. (1997). Sign on Europe: A study of Deaf people and sign language in the European Union. Bristol: University of Bristol’s Centre for Deaf Studies.
Sharma, D., Raghunath Rao, R. (2018). The Combined Effect of Captioning and Sign Language in Understanding Television Content in Deaf. Journal of Communication Disorders, Deaf Studies & Hearing Aids, 6 (1). doi: http://doi.org/10.4172/2375-4427.1000182
Stone, C. (2007). Deaf access for Deaf people: the translation of the television news from English into British Sign Language. Media for All. Brill Rodopi, 71–88. doi: http://doi.org/10.1163/9789401209564_006
Wehrmeyer, J. (2014). Eye-tracking Deaf and hearing viewing of sign language interpreted news broadcasts. Journal of Eye Movement Research, 7 (1). doi: http://doi.org/10.16910/jemr.7.1.3
Xiao, X., Feiyan L. (2013). Sign language interpreting on Chinese TV: a survey on user perspectives. Perspectives. 21 (1), 100–116. doi: http://doi.org/10.1080/0907676x.2011.632690
Neves, P. (2007). Of pride and prejudice the divide between subtitling and sign language interpreting on television. The Sign Language Translator and Interpreter, 1 (2).
European Broadcasting Union (EBU) (2016). The Statesman’s Yearbook: The Politics, Cultures and Economies of the World, 44. doi: http://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-349-68398-7_22
Convention on the rights of persons with disabilities (2007). New York: United Nations.
Moreau, H. (1998). Interpretation on the ARTE channel. Translating for the Media. Turku: University of Turku, 225–229.
Xiao, X., Yu, R. (2009). Survey on sign language interpreting in China. Interpreting, 11 (2), 137–163. doi: http://doi.org/10.1075/intp.11.2.03xia
Chiaro, D., Nocella, G. (2004). Interpreters’ perception of linguistic and non-linguistic factors affecting quality: A survey through the World Wide Web. Meta, 49 (2), 278–293. doi: http://doi.org/10.7202/009351ar
Pöchhacker, F. (1995). " Those Who Do...": A Profile of Research (ers) in Interpreting. Target. International Journal of Translation Studies, 7 (1), 47–64. doi: http://doi.org/10.1075/target.7.1.05poc
Zhang, N., Meng, F. (Eds.) (2009). Introduction to sign language interpreting. Zhengzhou: Zhengzhou University Press.
Sign language interpretation in HBBTV (2016). Hybrid Broadcast Broadband for All. Available at: https://pagines.uab.cat/hbb4all/sites/pagines.uab.cat.hbb4all/files/sign_language_interpreting_in_hbbtv.pdf Last accessed: 25.09.2020
Sandler, W. (2005). Sign language: An overview. Available at: http://sandlersignlab.haifa.ac.il/wendy.htm
Jackson, A. L. (2001). Language facility and theory of mind development in deaf children. Journal of Deaf studies and Deaf education, 6 (3), 161–176. doi: http://doi.org/10.1093/deafed/6.3.161
Stratiy, A. (2005). Best practices in interpreting. Topics in Signed Language Interpreting: Theory and Practice, 63, 231–250. doi: http://doi.org/10.1075/btl.63.14str
Bidoli, C. (2009). Sign language: a newcomer to the interpreting forum. (Paper given at the International Conference on Quality in Conference Interpreting. Available at: http://www.openstarts.units.it/dspace/bitstream/10077/2454/1/08.pdf Last accessed: 21.12.09
Gibet, S., Marteau, P. F., Duarte, K. (2012). Toward a Motor Theory of Sign Language Perception. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 7206, 161–172. doi: http://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-34182-3_15
Astalin, P. K. (2013). Qualitative research designs: A conceptual framework. International Journal of Social Science and Interdisciplinary Research, 2 (1), 118–124.
Creswell, J. W. (2013). Qualitative inquiry: Choosing among five approaches. Los Angeles, 448. Available at: https://books.google.co.za/books/about/Qualitative_Inquiry_and_Research_Design.html?id=OJYEbDtkxq8C
Saini, M., Shlonsky, A. (2012). Systematic synthesis of qualitative research. OUP USA.
Braun, V., Clarke, V. (2013). Successful qualitative research: A practical guide for beginners. Sage.
Copyright (c) 2022 Olufemi Timothy Adigun, Paseka Andrew Mosia, Chidi Topaz Olujie
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Our journal abides by the Creative Commons CC BY copyright rights and permissions for open access journals.
Authors, who are published in this journal, agree to the following conditions:
1. The authors reserve the right to authorship of the work and pass the first publication right of this work to the journal under the terms of a Creative Commons CC BY, which allows others to freely distribute the published research with the obligatory reference to the authors of the original work and the first publication of the work in this journal.
2. The authors have the right to conclude separate supplement agreements that relate to non-exclusive work distribution in the form in which it has been published by the journal (for example, to upload the work to the online storage of the journal or publish it as part of a monograph), provided that the reference to the first publication of the work in this journal is included.