Migration policy implementation and its politics in South Africa

Keywords: Migration, xenophobism, security, development, South Africa, Africa, globalization, migrants, policies

Abstract

Globally, migration is to a certain degree an important and highly debated political topic among scholars because of its peculiarity to human movement and relationship between states. Migration is fundamental to liberal democracies and a function of the international system of states. Following the demise of the apartheid system and the adoption of inclusive governance in South Africa in 1994, the country has continued to witness an influx of migrants. However, the call for the deportation and rejection of migrants amongst South Africans has continued to increase with black foreign nationals at the receiving end, sometimes openly or clandestinely done by government officials. Using a qualitative research method, underpinned by the following questions (i) Is South Africa playing politics with its migration policies, while surreptitiously legalizing xenophobism? (ii) Can well-managed migration policies allay the fears of foreign nationals, particularly the blacks in South Africa? (iii) What effects would anti-immigrants’ laws and attitudes have on South Africa’s relations with other [African] countries? The paper argued that South Africa’s preoccupation with restrictionism policies, driven by xenophobism and political interest, seems to have compromised inroads for immigrants that are very important to its economic growth, concluding that unless the rhetoric of a perceived socio-economic threat, posed by migrants, is countered effectively, South Africa’s economies stand to lose out substantially from the implementation of anti-immigration policies.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

Toyin Cotties Adetiba, University of Zululand

Department of Political and International Studies

References

Hollifield, J. F. (2004). The Emerging Migration State. International Migration Review, 38 (3), 885–912. doi: http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1747-7379.2004.tb00223.x

Betts, A. (2011). The International Politics of Migration. St Antony’s International Review, 6 (2) 134–50.

Hollifield, J.; Ueda, R. (Ed.) (2007). The Politics of Immigration and the Rise of the Migration State. A Companion to American Immigration. Oxford: Blackwell.

Heather, J. (2021). Immigration and International Relations. Iobo in Political Science. doi: http://doi.org/10.1093/obo/9780199756223-0204

Kielmaan, K., Cataldo, F., Seeley, F. (2012). Introduction to Qualitative Research Methodology: A Training Manual. London: Department of International Development.

Bryman, A. (2004). Social research methods. New York: Oxford University Press

Hornby, A. S. (2020). Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary of Current English. Oxford University Press.

Mbanefo, O.; Okeke-Uzodike, U., Onapajo, H., Ihuoma, C. (Eds.) (2021). Migration and the Dislocation of Nigeria’s Social Fabric: The Governance Question. In Migration and Governance in Africa: Lessons for Policymakers. Nigeria: African Heritage Institution Enugu, 19–33.

Song, S. (2018). Political Theories of Migration. Annual Review of Political Science, 21 (1), 385–402. doi: http://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-polisci-082317-093019

Walzer, M. (1983). Spheres of Justice: A Defense of Pluralism and Equality. New York: Basic Books, 345.

Evans, G., Newham, J. (1998). Dictionary of International Relations. Penguin Books.

Adamson, F. B., Tsourapas, G. (2019). The Migration State in the Global South: Nationalizing, Developmental, and Neoliberal Models of Migration Management. International Migration Review, 54 (3), 853–882. doi: http://doi.org/10.1177/0197918319879057

Sassen, S. (1996). Beyond sovereignty: Immigration policymaking today. Social Justice, 23 (3), 9–20.

Joppke, C. (1998). Why liberal states accept unwanted immigration. World Politics, 50 (2), 266–293. doi: http://doi.org/10.1017/s004388710000811x

Zogata-Kusz, A. (2012). Theoretical Perspectives on Immigration Policy and Politics. Contemporary European Studies, 1, 5–21.

Meyers, E. (2000). Theories of International Migration Policy – A Comparative Analysis’. International Migration Review, 34 (4), 1245–1282. doi: http://doi.org/10.1177/019791830003400407

Hollifield, J. F.; Brettel, C. B., Hollifield, J. F. (Eds.) (2000). The Politics of International Migration: How Can We Bring the State Back In? Migration Theory: Talking across Disciplines. New York: Routledge, 137–185.

Weiner, M. (1995). The Global Crisis: Challenge to State and to Human Rights. New York: HarperCollins.

Tsoukala, A.; Bigo, D., Guild, E. (Eds.) (2005). Looking at Migrants as Enemies. Controlling Frontiers: Free Movement into and within Europe. Aldershot: Ashgate, 161–192. doi: http://doi.org/10.4324/9781315259321-5

Karyotis, G. (2012). Securitization of Migration in Greece: Process, Motives, and Implications. International Political Sociology, 6 (4), 390–408. doi: http://doi.org/10.1111/ips.12002

Balzacq, T.; Balzacq, T. (Ed.) (2011). A Theory of Securitization: Origins, Core Assumptions, and Variants. Securitization Theory: How Security Problems Emerge and Dissolve. New York: Routledge, 15–44. doi: http://doi.org/10.4324/9780203868508-8

Matema, T. (2021). South Africa’s policy on migrants is inadequate and at odds with the Freedom Charter Mail & Guardian Online. Available at https://mg.co.za/opinion/2021-05-27-south-africas-policy-on-migrants-is-inadequate-and-at-odds-with-the-freedom-charter/

IOM UN Migration. Making migration work for all. Available at: https://www.iom.int/countries/south-africa#rm

Segatti, A. (2011). Reforming South African Immigration Policy in the Post-apartheid Period (1990 – 2010). Contemporary Migration to South Africa, 31–65. doi: http://doi.org/10.1596/9780821387672_ch01

Lennep, T van (2019). Migration II: The South African migration policy landscape Helen Suzman Foundation. Available at: https://hsf.org.za/publications/hsf-briefs/the-south-african-migration-policy-landscape

Mahlakoana, T. (2022). SA’s unemployment rate crosses the dreaded 35 % threshold: Stats SA. Eye Witness News. Available at: https://ewn.co.za/2022/03/29/sa-s-unemployment-crosses-the-dreaded-35-threshold-says-stats-sa

Mutizira, K. (2021). How immigrants contribute to South Africa’s economy. The Daily Vox. Available at: https://www.thedailyvox.co.za/how-immigrants-contribute-to-south-africas-economy/

OECD/ILO (2018). How Immigrants Contribute to South Africa’s Economy. Paris: OECD Publishing, 153.

Parliamentary Monitoring Group (2017). Question NW1615 to the Minister of Justice and Correctional Services. Available at: https://pmg.org.za/committee-question/5880/

Flagg, A (2019). Is there a connection between undocumented immigrants and crimes? New York Times. Available at https://www.nytimes.com/2019/05/13/upshot/illegal-immigration-crime-rates-research.html

Department of Home Affairs (2022). Immigration Act (13/2002): Critical Skills List Gazette No. 45860. Available at: http://www.dha.gov.za/images/notices/Gazetted_Critical_Skills_List_2022-compressed.pdf

Cohen, S. (2013). The Importance of Immigration. HuffPost. Available at: https://www.huffpost.com/entry/the-importance-of-immigra_b_2566100

Okeke-Uzodike, U., Onapajo, H., Ihuoma, C. (2021). Migration in Africa: Role of Leadership. Migration and Governance in Africa: Lessons for Policymakers. African Heritage Institution.

Adetiba, T. C. (2021). Public Diplomacy and South Africa’s Response to Xenophobia. African Renaissance, 18 (3), 59–80.

Barron, L. (2018). A New Low. The World Is Furious at Trump for His Remark About Shithole Countries. Time. Available athttps://time.com/5100328/shithole-countries-trump-reactions/

Nyamjoh, F. (2006). Insiders and outsiders: Citizenship and xenophobia in Southern Africa. London: Zed Books.

Mabuza, E. (2022). Journalist SAHRC condemns Diepsloot vigilantism that led to Elvis Nyathi's killing. Times Live. Available at https://www.timeslive.co.za/news/south-africa/2022-04-08-sahrc-condemns-diepsloot-vigilantism-that-led-to-elvis-nyathis-killing/

Castles, S., Kosack, G. (1985). Immigrant workers and class structure in Western Europe. New York: Oxford University Press.


👁 48
⬇ 41
Published
2022-05-31
How to Cite
Adetiba, T. C. (2022). Migration policy implementation and its politics in South Africa. EUREKA: Social and Humanities, (3), 91-103. https://doi.org/10.21303/2504-5571.2022.002383
Section
Social Sciences