Relationship between self-handicapping and academic buoyancy among final year students in secondary schools

Keywords: self-handicapping, academic buoyancy, final year, students, secondary schools


The study examined the relationship between self-handicapping and academic buoyancy among final year students in secondary schools in Nsukka education zone of Enugu State of Nigeria. This study adopted the cross-sectional survey research design. Through multistage sampling technique, 120 final year students were selected. The questionnaires, such as Academic Buoyancy Scale (ABS) and Self-handicapping Scale were used to collect data. The internal validity of self-handicapping and academic buoyancy scales were ascertained using the Bartlett’s tests for Sphericity and it was reported to be highly significant (p< 0.05). The internal consistency of the questionnaires was ensured by using the Cronbach's alpha and a value of 0.844 and 0.867 was reported for the self-handicapping and academic buoyancy scales respectively. The quantitative data from questionnaires was analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. The results showed that there was low negative insignificant relationship between the two variables (Beta=-.105; R=-.105; p < .253), indicating that high level self-handicapping is negatively associated with academic buoyancy among final year students in secondary schools. The study recommends that student counselors should develop structured and comprehensive cognitive behavioral therapy sessions to enhance the self-handicapping of final year students in secondary schools.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Peter J. O. Aloka, University of the Witwatersrand

Department of Studies in Education

Wits School of Education

Osita V. Ossai, University of Johannesburg

Department of Childhood Education

Amos N. Amedu, University of Nigeria

Department of Social Science Education


Berglas, S., Jones, E. E. (1978). Drug choice as a self-handicapping strategy in response to noncontingent success. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 36 (4), 405–417. doi:

Chen, L. H., Wu, C.-H., Kee, Y. H., Lin, M.-S., Shui, S.-H. (2009). Fear of failure, 2×2 achievement goal and self-handicapping: An examination of the hierarchical model of achievement motivation in physical education. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 34 (4), 298–305. doi:

Martin, A. J., Colmar, S. H., Davey, L. A., Marsh, H. W. (2010). Longitudinal modelling of academic buoyancy and motivation: Do the 5Cs hold up over time? British Journal of Educational Psychology, 80 (3), 473–496. doi:

Martin, A. J., Marsh, H. W. (2008). Academic buoyancy: Towards an understanding of students’ everyday academic resilience. Journal of School Psychology, 46, 53–83. doi:

Datu, J. A. D., Yang, W. (2019). Academic buoyancy, academic motivation, and academic achievement among filipino high school students. Current Psychology, 40 (8), 3958–3965. doi:

Martin, A. J., Yu, K., Ginns, P., Papworth, B. (2016). Young people’s academic buoyancy and adaptability: a cross-cultural comparison of China with North America and the United Kingdom. Educational Psychology, 37 (8), 930–946. doi:

Collie, R. J., Martin, A. J., Malmberg, l.-E., hall, J., Ginns, P. (2015). Academic buoyancy, student’s achievement, and the linking role of control: A cross-lagged analysis of high school students. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 85 (1), 113–130. doi:

Collie,R. J., Ginns, P., Martin, A. J., Papworth, B. (2017). Academic buoyancy mediates academic anxiety’s effects on learning strategies: An investigation of English-and Chinese-speaking Australian students. Educational Psychology, 37 (8), 947–964. doi:

Martin, A. J., Ginns, P., Brackett, M. A., Malmberg, L.-E., Hall, J. (2013). Academic buoyancy and psychological risk: Exploring reciprocal relationships. Learning and Individual Differences, 27, 128–133. doi:

Martin, A. J., Marsh, H. W. (2009). Academic resilience and academic buoyancy: multidimensional and hierarchical conceptual framing of causes, correlates and cognate constructs. Oxford Review of Education, 35 (3), 353–370. doi:

Barutçu Yıldırım, F., Demir, A. (2019). Self-Handicapping Among University Students: The Role of Procrastination, Test Anxiety, Self-Esteem, and Self-Compassion. Psychological Reports, 123 (3), 825–843. doi:

Barzegar, K., Khezri, H. (2012). Predicting academic cheating among the fifth grade students: The role of self-efficacy and academic self-handicapping. Journal of Life Science and Biomedicine, 2 (1), 1–6.

Fadhli, M., Sudirman, S. A., Kılınçer, H. (2021). An Investigation into the Self-Handicapping Behaviors in Terms of Academic Procrastination. International Journal of Islamic Educational Psychology, 2 (2), 191–202. doi:

Pulford, B. D., Johnson, A., Awaida, M. (2005). A cross-cultural study of predictors of self-handicapping in university students. Personality and Individual Differences, 39 (4), 727–737. doi:

Finn, J. D., Rock, D. A. (1997). Academic success among students at risk for school failure. Journal of Applied Psychology, 82 (2), 221–234. doi:

Miller, S., Connolly, P., Maguire, L. K. (2013). Wellbeing, academic buoyancy and educational achievement in primary school students. International Journal of Educational Research, 62, 239–248. doi:

Zuckerman, M., Kieffer, S. C., Knee, C. R. (1998). Consequences of self-handicapping: Effects on coping, academic performance, and adjustment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74 (6), 1619–1628. doi:

Kazemi, Y., Nikmanesh, Z., Khosravi, M. (2015). Role of self-handicapping on prediction of the quality of life in primary students. Practices in Clinical Psychology, 3 (1), 61–68.

Chorba, K.,Was, C. A., Isaacson, R. M. (2012). Individual differences in academic identity and self-handicapping in undergraduate college students. Individual Differences Research, 10 (2), 60–68.

Tice, D. M. (1991). Esteem protection or enhancement? Self-handicapping motives and attributions differ by trait self-esteem. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60 (5), 711–725. doi:

Akça, F. (2012). An Investigation into the Self-handicapping Behaviors of Undergraduates in Terms of Academic Procrastination, the Locus of Control and Academic Success. Journal of Education and Learning, 1 (2), 288–296. doi:

Elliot, A. J., Church, M. A. (2003). A motivational analysis of defensive pessimism and self-handicapping. Journal of Personality, 71 (3), 369–396. doi:

McCrea, S. M., Hirt, E. R. (2001). The role of ability judgments in self-handicapping. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27 (10), 1378–1389. doi:

Ozgungor, S. (2008). Relationship between university students’ cheating behaviours and their perceptions of teacher and student characteristics. Education and Science, 33 (149), 68–79.

Martin, A. J. (2014). Academic buoyancy and academic outcomes: Towards a further understanding of students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), students without Adhd, and academic buoyancy itself. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 84, 86–107. doi:

Putwain, D. W., Connors, L., Symes, W., Douglas-Osborn, E. (2012). Is academic buoyancy anything more than adaptive coping? Anxiety, Stress & Coping, 25 (3), 349–358. doi:

Putwain, D. W., Daly, A. L., Chamberlain, S., Sadreddini, S. (2015). Academically buoyant students are less anxious about and perform better in high-stakes examinations. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 85, 247–263. doi:

Colmar, S., Liem, G. A. D.,Connor, J., Martin, A. J. (2019). Exploring the relationships between academic buoyancy, academic self-concept, and academic performance: A study of mathematics and reading among primary school students. Educational Psychology, 39, 1068–1089. doi:

Bahrami, F. (2017). The relationship between cognitive emotion regulation and academic buoyancy with the role of mediating self-handicapping in students. Iranian journal of educational Sociology, 1 (6), 114–124.

Putwain, D. W., Daly, A. l. (2013). Do clusters of test anxiety and academic buoyancy differentially predict academic performance? Learning and Individual Differences, 27, 157–162. doi:

Martin, A. J., Nejad, H. G., Colmar, S., Liem, G. A. D. (2013). Adaptability: How students’ responses to uncertainty and novelty predict their academic and non-academic outcomes. Journal of Educational Psychology, 105 (3), 728–746. doi:

Schwinger, M., Wirthwein, L., Lemmer, G., Steinmayr, R. (2014). Academic self-handicapping and achievement: A meta-analysis. Journal of Educational Psychology, 106 (3), 744–761. doi:

Phan, H. P., Ngu, B. H. (2014). An empirical analysis of students’ learning and achievements: A motivational approach. Educational Journal, 3 (4), 203–216. doi:

Ghaseminik, S. (2015). Predict psychological well -being based on fear of success and self -maladaptation in education students. Shiraz University.

Ferradás, M. M., Freire, C., Valle, A., Núñez, J. C. (2016). Academic goals and selfhandicapping strategies in university students. Spanish Journal of Psychology, 19, 1–9. doi:

Hirvonen, R., Putwain, D. W., Määttä, S., Ahonen, T., Kiuru, N. (2020). The role of academic buoyancy and emotions in students’ learning related expectations and behaviours in primary school. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 90 (4), 948–963. doi:

Putwain, D. W. (2019). An examination of the self-referent executive processing model of test anxiety: control, emotional regulation, self-handicapping, and examination performance. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 34, 341–358. doi:

Stephens, K. H. (2019). Academic resilience, academic buoyancy and the motivation and engagement scale: a construct validity approach. University of Tasmania.

Martin, A. J., Marsh, H. W. (2020). Investigating the reciprocal relations between academic buoyancy and academic adversity: Evidence for the protective role of academic buoyancy in reducing academic adversity over time. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 44 (4), 301–312. doi:

Alodat, A. M., Abu Ghazal, M. M., Al-Hamouri, F. A. (2020). Perfectionism and Academic Self-Handicapped among Gifted Students: An Explanatory Model. International Journal of Educational Psychology, 9 (2), 195–222. doi:

Jia, J., Wang, L. L., Xu, J. B., Lin, X. H., Zhang, B., Jiang, Q. (2021). Self-Handicapping in Chinese Medical Students During the COVID-19 Pandemic: The Role of Academic Anxiety, Procrastination and Hardiness. Frontiers in psychology, 12. doi:

Lavrakas, P. J. (2008). Encyclopedia of survey research methods. Vols. 1-0. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications. doi:

Jones, E. E., Rhodewalt, F. (1982). The Self-Handicapping Scale. Princeton: Princeton University. doi:

Martin, A. J., Marsh, H. W. (2005). Motivating boys and motivating girls: Does teacher gender really make a difference? Australian Journal of Education, 49 (3), 320–334. doi:

👁 24
⬇ 27
How to Cite
Aloka, P. J. O., Ossai, O. V., & Amedu, A. N. (2022). Relationship between self-handicapping and academic buoyancy among final year students in secondary schools. EUREKA: Social and Humanities, (4), 58-66.
Social Sciences