INTENSITY OF INFECTION AND MEANS OF GIARDIASIS PREVENTION AT THE FARMS OF UKRAINE
G. duodenalis is the most widespread among the six generally recognized species of giardiasis affecting the gastrointestinal tract of mammals. Destruction of Giardia intestinalis oocysts in the environment mitigates the risk of infection for animals and humans.
The objective of the study. The research is aimed at establishing the effectiveness of disinfectants against Giardia intestinalis cysts.
Methods. The research involved twelve farms in Ukraine. Fecal samples were taken from the tested calves aged from 1 to 3 weeks. Giardiasis was diagnosed on the basis of laboratory tests of calf feces by the Fulleborn's method. The object of study was represented by cysts of Giardia intestinalis obtained from the feces through combined flotation methods. After exposure for a period of 30 and 60 minutes, the supernatant was drained and the precipitate applied to a glass slide to be stained with Lugol's solution. Cysts were subject to evaluation in terms of their morphological features. Their shape, size, color, nuclei location and axon were determined under a microscope at a magnification of about 10x400. Yodosol, Kontavir, Biocontact and Bioluft were used as a disinfectant.
Results. The study carried out at dairy farms of various forms of ownership revealed that 25–50 % of calves at the holdings and 50–75 % of those at the farms were infected with Giardia intestinalis. Experiments established that Kontavir at a concentration of 1 %, as a disinfectant, produced a cytotoxic effect (compressed the cyst membrane) on Giardia intestinalis for 60 minutes. If the drug concentration increases to 2–3 %, Kontravir destroys the cyst shell releasing its contents within 30-60 minutes.
Conclusions. The prevalence of Giardia intestinalis has been established through studying dairy farms in four regions of Ukraine. As a disinfectant, Kontavir at a concentration of 1 % produces a cytotoxic effect (compresses the cyst membrane), at a concentration of 2–3 %, it completely destroys the cyst membrane.
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