A study on the effects of plasma spraying parameters on the adhesion strength of Cr3C2-NiCr coating on 16Mn steel

Keywords: Plasma thermal spraying, Cr3C2-30 %NiCr, 16Mn, Spraying parameters, Adhesion strength, ANOVA, Genetic Algorithm


This paper experimentally studied the adhesion strength of Cr3C2-30 %NiCr coating created on 16Mn steel substrate by plasma thermal coating technique in relation to spraying parameters. Experiments were carried out according to the central composite design (CCD) experimental matrix with three parameters: current intensity, powder feeding rate, and spray distance. Samples consisting of an annular disc and a latch made of 16Mn were fabricated according to the JIS H8664-1977 standard. Cr3C2-30 %NiCr coating was then created on the top surface of the disc including end of the latch. Adhesion strength of the coating to the substrate was measured through the tensile test. ANOVA analysis of variance was performed to evaluate the influence of the spraying parameters on adhesion strength and to build an empirical regression function representing the relationship between those parameters and the adhesion. Optimization problem was solved by ANOVA method and genetic algorithm (GA) to determine the value of the spraying parameters at which the coating has the greatest adhesion strength to the substrate. The results showed that the spraying parameters greatly affected the adhesion of the Cr3C2-30 %NiCr coating to the 16Mn substrate. Among them the spray distance has the greatest influence while the powder feeding rate has the least. Secondly, the regression function was well reflected the relationship between the three parameters and adhesion strength of the coating on the substrate. Using the values of spray parameter obtained from the GA optimization to create Cr3C2-30 %NiCr coating on 16Mn steel, the adhesion strength of the coating to the substrate reached a value of 98.4 % compared to the prediction


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Dang Xuan Thao, Hanoi University of Industry

Center for Mechanical Engineering

Cuong Pham Duc, Hanoi University of Industry

HaUI Institute of Technology


Fauchais, P. (2004). Understanding plasma spraying. Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, 37 (9), R86–R108. doi: https://doi.org/10.1088/0022-3727/37/9/r02

Tucker, R. C. (Ed.) (2013). ASM Handbook. Volume 5A: Thermal Spray Technology. ASM International, 412.

Chang, F., Zhou, K., Tong, X., Xu, L., Zhang, X., Liu, M. (2014). Microstructure and thermal shock resistance of the peg-nail structured TBCs treated by selective laser modification. Applied Surface Science, 317, 598–606. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2014.08.084

Zhang, X., Zhou, K., Wei, X., Chen, B., Song, J., Liu, M. (2014). In situ synthesis of α-alumina layer at top yttrium-stabilized zirconia thermal barrier coatings for oxygen barrier. Ceramics International, 40 (8), 12703–12708. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ceramint.2014.04.118

Wutzke, S. A., Pfender, E., Ecker, E. R. G. (1968). Symptomatic behavior of an electric arc with a superimposed flow. AIAA Journal, 6 (8), 1474–1482. doi: https://doi.org/10.2514/3.4791

Fincke, J., Swank, W. D. (1991). The effect of plasma jet fluctuations on particle time-temperature histories. Proceedings of 4th NTSC. Pittsburgh, 193–198.

Wang, Y., Han, Y., Lin, C., Zheng, W., Jiang, C., Wei, A. et. al. (2021). Effect of spraying power on the morphology of YSZ splat and micro-structure of thermal barrier coating. Ceramics International, 47 (13), 18956–18963. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ceramint.2021.03.238

Fincke, J., Swank, W. D. (1992). Air plasma spraying of zirconia: spray characteristics, deposition efficiency and porosity control by standoff distance. Proceedings of international thermal spray conference. Orlando, 513–518.

Bhushan, B., Gupta, B K. (1991). Handbook of Tribology: materials, coatings, and surface treatments. McGraw-Hill.

El Rayes, M. M., Abdo, H. S., Khalil, K. A. (2013). Erosion - Corrosion of Cermet Coating. International Journal of Electrochemical Science, 8, 1117–1137.

Li, J. F., Li, L., Ding, C. X. (2005). Thermal diffusivity of plasma-sprayed Cr3C2–NiCr coatings. Materials Science and Engineering: A, 394 (1-2), 229–237. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msea.2004.11.009

Thao, D. X., Got, H. V., Phan, N. H., Cuong, P. D. (2019). Influence of Carbide Content on the Adhesion and Microscopic Hardness of Plasma Spray Cr3C2-NiCr Coating on 16Mn Steel. Chemical and Materials Engineering, 7 (3), 25–31. doi: https://doi.org/10.13189/cme.2019.070301

Thao, D. X., Got, H. V., Cuong, P. D. (2018). Research on solutions to recover industrial fans operating in abrasive and high temperature conditions with air plasma thermal spray technology. Proceeding of the 5th National Conference on Mechanical Science & Technology Hanoi. Available at: https://khcn.haui.edu.vn/media/29/uffile-upload-no-title29763.pdf

Mariaux, G., Vardelle, A. (2005). 3-D time-dependent modelling of the plasma spray process. Part 1: flow modelling. International Journal of Thermal Sciences, 44 (4), 357–366. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijthermalsci.2004.07.006

Nogues, E., Vardelle, M., Fauchais, P., Granger, P. (2008). Arc voltage fluctuations: Comparison between two plasma torch types. Surface and Coatings Technology, 202 (18), 4387–4393. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.surfcoat.2008.04.014

Alaya, M., Chazelas, C., Vardelle, A. (2015). Parametric Study of Plasma Torch Operation Using a MHD Model Coupling the Arc and Electrodes. Journal of Thermal Spray Technology, 25 (1-2), 36–43. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11666-015-0330-3

Cuong, P. D., Thao, D. X. (2021). Effect of surface roughness and plasma current to adhesion of Cr3C2-NiCr coating fabricated by plasma spray technique on 16Mn steel. International Journal of Modern Physics B, 35 (14n16), 2140037. doi: https://doi.org/10.1142/s0217979221400373

Du, N. V., Binh, N. D. (2011). Experimental planning in engineering. Nxb Science Technology. Ha Noi, Viet Nam.

👁 50
⬇ 40
How to Cite
Thao, D. X., & Duc, C. P. (2022). A study on the effects of plasma spraying parameters on the adhesion strength of Cr3C2-NiCr coating on 16Mn steel. EUREKA: Physics and Engineering, (2), 91-100. https://doi.org/10.21303/2461-4262.2022.001827