CFD analysis of the needle tip angle in Pelton injector on jet quality for the power generation
Fossil fuels are energy sources that supply a large part of the world's energy generation. However, they produce greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen oxide (NOx) and particulates that increase global warming. For this reason, other forms of renewable energy such as hydropower have begun to be implemented through turbomachinery such as Pelton turbines, which significantly reduce these emissions since they are highly efficient turbines based on the use of natural resources (water). Pelton turbines are based mainly on three components for their operation, which are the Pelton injector, the bucket and the wheel. The injector is an important component in the energy transformation of Pelton turbines. Although to analyze its behavior, it is possible to use fluid dynamics (CFD) software to predict the trajectory of the flow through a solid or free surface. The objective of this work is to analyze by means of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) the incidence of the length and the needle tip angle of a Pelton turbine injector on the generated power. For this, an ANSYS 2020R2 computational fluid analysis software was used to study how the variation of the injector needle tip angle influences through the volume of fluid (VOF) method, starting from the generation of a commercial model with a tip angle of 60° and two (2) geometries of 55° and 75° respectively. Numerical results show a better performance for the 75° angle of 96 % and lower for the 55° and 60° with 94.1 % and 95.5 % respectively, whereby steeper angles achieve higher performances. In summary, the present study pretends to increase the power generation, in the face of phenomena occurred in the energy transfer. Although the performance of the injector in each angle configuration must be tested in practice
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