The comparison pack carburizing-nitriding SUS 316 with gas type Welding Grade and Ultra High Purity

Keywords: Pack Carburizing-nitriding, Nitrogen, Welding Grade, Ultra High Purity, Microstructure, SUS 316


The paper discusses the comparison of pack carburizing-nitriding SUS 316 with gas Nitrogen. The purpose of this study was to increase the hardness and corrosion resistance of SUS 316.

The research used a pack carburizing-nitriding method with gas type Welding Grade (WG) and Ultra High Purity (UHP). The pack carburizing process uses teak wood activated carbon and barium carbonate as a bio-photo catalyst. The specimens were put into a Sealed Steel Container containing teak wood activated carbon, with a depth of 1 cm below the activated carbon's surface. The test material is then heated until it reaches 850 °C and is held for 1 hour in a heating furnace. Furthermore, the nitriding process, the specimen is put into a tightly closed nitrogen tube, then nitrogen gas flows until the pressure reaches 41 bar and is held for 24 hours. They are using Welding Grade (WG) and Ultra High Purity (UHP) gas types. Furthermore, microVickers hardness testing, optical microscope, and Scan Electron Microscope (SEM) were carried out.

The results of the study include a. There was an increase in violence by 41.7 % for UHP and WG (17.3 %). b. The formation of nitride compounds and carbon dissipation on the specimen surface in the UHP carburizing-nitriding pack treatment is more than WG. The formation of a nitride layer is indicated by its fine and dense morphology and film bonding to the substrate. The chemical composition affects the diffusivity of nitrogen atoms in modifying the surface layer of the substrate. The higher the nitride compound formed, the smoother the substrate surface. Also, with UHP treatment, the lower the elemental content of Cr makes SUS 316 more resistant to corrosion. So that SUS 316 UHP can be recommended for use as an implant material


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Bambang Sulistiyono, Brawijaya University; State Polytechnic of Malang

Department of Mechanical Engineering

Department of Mechanical Engineering

Yudy Surya Irawan, Brawijaya University

Department of Mechanical Engineering

Agus Suprapto, Merdeka University

Department of Mechanical Engineering

Rudy Soenoko, Brawijaya University

Department of Mechanical Engineering


Scales, J. T., Winter, G. D., Shirley, H. T. (1961). Corrosion of Orthopaedic Implants. BMJ, 2 (5250), 478–482. doi:

Disegi, J. A., Eschbach, L. (2000). Stainless steel in bone surgery. Injury, 31, D2–D6. doi:

Li, C. X., Bell, T. (2004). Corrosion properties of active screen plasma nitrided 316 austenitic stainless steel. Corrosion Science, 46 (6), 1527–1547. doi:

Biserova-Tahchieva, A., Cabrera, J. M., Llorca-Isern, N. (2020). Study of the Thermochemical Surface Treatment Effect on the Phase Precipitation and Degradation Behaviour of DSS and SDSS. Materials, 13 (1), 165. doi:

Susilo, S. H., Suparman, S., Mardiana, D., Hamidi, N. (2016). The Effect of Velocity Ratio Study on Microchannel Hydrodynamics Focused of Mixing Glycerol Nitration Reaction. Periodica Polytechnica Mechanical Engineering, 60 (4), 228–232. doi:

Hassan, K. S., Razooqi, A. I., Ridha, M. H. (2020). Mechanical, Pure Fatigue and Corrosion Fatigue Properties of Pack Carburizing Low Carbon Steel Aisi 1020 by Using Waste Organic Materials in 3.5% Nacl. doi:

Lo, K. H., Shek, C. H., Lai, J. K. L. (2009). Recent developments in stainless steels. Materials Science and Engineering: R: Reports, 65 (4-6), 39–104. doi:

Jiang, T., Odnevall Wallinder, I., Herting, G. (2012). Chemical Stability of Chromium Carbide and Chromium Nitride Powders Compared with Chromium Metal in Synthetic Biological Solutions. ISRN Corrosion, 2012, 1–10. doi:

Susilo, S. H., Asrori, A. (2021). Analysis of position and rotation direction of double stirrer on chaotic advection behavior. EUREKA: Physics and Engineering, 2, 78–86. doi:

Czerwinski, F. (2012). Thermochemical Treatment of Metals. Heat Treatment - Conventional and Novel Applications. doi:

Inouye, H. (1962). High-temperature reactions of type 304 stainless steel in low concentrations of carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide. doi:

Krastev, D. (2012). Improvement of Corrosion Resistance of Steels by Surface Modification. Corrosion Resistance. doi:

Aramide, F. O., Ibitoye, S., Oladele, I. O., Borode, J. O. (2010). Pack carburization of mild steel, using pulverized bone as carburizer: Optimizing process parameters. Leonardo Electronic Journal of Practices and Technologies, 16, 1–12. Available at:

👁 29
⬇ 32
How to Cite
Sulistiyono, B., Irawan, Y. S., Suprapto, A., & Soenoko, R. (2021). The comparison pack carburizing-nitriding SUS 316 with gas type Welding Grade and Ultra High Purity . EUREKA: Physics and Engineering, (3), 119-126.