The effect of magnetic field variations in a mixture of coconut oil and jatropha on flame stability and characteristics on the premixed combustion
This study investigates the effect of attracting and repels magnetic fields with the materials of vegetable oil in the form of a mixture of coconut oil and jatropha (B50) against the behavior of stability and characteristics of flame in the process of premixed burning. The fuel for a mixture of vegetable oil of 600 ml was filled into the boiler heated with a gas stove to be evaporated at a temperature of 300 °C and 3 bar pressure was kept constant was mixed with air from the compressor in the burner room. Then a flame was ignited at the end of the nozzle to form a diffusion flame, the flame formed was then given north (N) and south (S). The results showed that the flame speed of the attractive magnetic field was 52.22 cm/sec, the repulsive magnetic field was 50.49 cm/sec while without a magnetic field was 49.79 cm/sec. The increase in the laminar flame speed in the attractive magnetic field is caused by the electron spin becoming more energetic and due to the change in the spin of the hydrogen proton from para to ortho. The attractive magnetic field has the strongest effect on increasing the flame speed. This makes the flame more stable in the equivalency ratio range of 0.75–1.17 compared to without a magnetic field in the same equivalency ratio range. This was so because O2 where it is in nature of paramagnetic was pumped more crossing the flame from south to north poles whereas the heat brought by H2O in nature of diamagnetic was pumped more crossing north to south poles. Whereas on the repel magnetic field, it was hotter when brought by H2O pumped into the flame whereas O2 tended to be pumped going out of the flame. This caused the combustion in the flame was smaller and the reaction was not maximum. As a consequence, the laminar flame speed was more lacking and the reaction was not to the fullest. As a consequence, the laminar flame speed in the repel was fewer than the attract magnetic field
Lin, J.-J., Chen, Y.-W. (2017). Production of biodiesel by transesterification of Jatropha oil with microwave heating. Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers, 75, 43–50. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtice.2017.03.034
Buosi, G. M., da Silva, E. T., Spacino, K., Silva, L. R. C., Ferreira, B. A. D., Borsato, D. (2016). Oxidative stability of biodiesel from soybean oil: Comparison between synthetic and natural antioxidants. Fuel, 181, 759–764. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2016.05.056
Zakaria, R., Harvey, A. P. (2012). Direct production of biodiesel from rapeseed by reactive extraction/in situ transesterification. Fuel Processing Technology, 102, 53–60. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuproc.2012.04.026
Nautiyal, P., Subramanian, K. A., Dastidar, M. G. (2014). Production and characterization of biodiesel from algae. Fuel Processing Technology, 120, 79–88. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuproc.2013.12.003
Hong, I. K., Lee, J. R., Lee, S. B. (2015). Fuel properties of canola oil and lard biodiesel blends: Higher heating value, oxidative stability, and kinematic viscosity. Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, 22, 335–340. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jiec.2014.07.027
Rakopoulos, D. C., Rakopoulos, C. D., Kyritsis, D. C. (2016). Butanol or DEE blends with either straight vegetable oil or biodiesel excluding fossil fuel: Comparative effects on diesel engine combustion attributes, cyclic variability and regulated emissions trade-off. Energy, 115, 314–325. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2016.09.022
Wei, S., He, C., Liu, X., Song, Z., Zhao, X. (2019). Numerical Analysis of the Effects of Swirl Ratio on the Performance of Diesel Engine Fueled with N-Butanol–Diesel Blends. Journal of Energy Engineering, 145(3), 04019005. doi: https://doi.org/10.1061/(asce)ey.1943-7897.0000600
Rakopoulos, D. C., Rakopoulos, C. D., Giakoumis, E. G., Dimaratos, A. M., Founti, M. A. (2011). Comparative environmental behavior of bus engine operating on blends of diesel fuel with four straight vegetable oils of Greek origin: Sunflower, cottonseed, corn and olive. Fuel, 90 (11), 3439–3446. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2011.06.009
Leenus Jesu Martin, M., Edwin Geo, V., Kingsly Jeba Singh, D., Nagalingam, B. (2012). A comparative analysis of different methods to improve the performance of cotton seed oil fuelled diesel engine. Fuel, 102, 372–378. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2012.06.049
Daho, T., Vaitilingom, G., Ouiminga, S. K., Piriou, B., Zongo, A. S., Ouoba, S., Koulidiati, J. (2013). Influence of engine load and fuel droplet size on performance of a CI engine fueled with cottonseed oil and its blends with diesel fuel. Applied Energy, 111, 1046–1053. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2013.05.059
Savariraj, S., Ganapathy, T., Saravanan, C. G. (2012). Performance and emission characteristics of diesel engine using high-viscous vegetable oil. International Journal of Ambient Energy, 33 (4), 193–203. doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/01430750.2012.709356
San José Alonso, J. F., Romero-Ávila, C., San José Hernández, L. M., Awf, A.-K. (2012). Characterising biofuels and selecting the most appropriate burner for their combustion. Fuel Processing Technology, 103, 39–44. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuproc.2011.07.023
Rath, S., Kumar, S., Singh, R. K. (2011). Performance and emission analysis of blends of karanja methyl ester with diesel in a compression ignition engine. International Journal of Ambient Energy, 32 (3), 161–166. doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/01430750.2011.619885
Bharathiraja, M., Manikalithas, P., Venkatachalam, R. (2014). Experimental investigation of performance and emission characteristics of non-preheated and preheated Karanja oil blend as alternate fuel in the compression-ignition engine. International Journal of Ambient Energy, 35 (2), 71–79. doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/01430750.2013.770796
Qi, D. H., Lee, C. F., Jia, C. C., Wang, P. P., Wu, S. T. (2014). Experimental investigations of combustion and emission characteristics of rapeseed oil–diesel blends in a two cylinder agricultural diesel engine. Energy Conversion and Management, 77, 227–232. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2013.09.023
Chang, Y.-C., Lee, W.-J., Wang, L.-C., Yang, H.-H., Cheng, M.-T., Lu, J.-H. et. al. (2014). Effects of waste cooking oil-based biodiesel on the toxic organic pollutant emissions from a diesel engine. Applied Energy, 113, 631–638. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2013.08.005
Popovicheva, O. B., Kireeva, E. D., Steiner, S., Rothen-Rutishauser, B., Persiantseva, N. M., Timofeev, M. A. et. al. (2014). Microstructure and Chemical Composition of Diesel and Biodiesel Particle Exhaust. Aerosol and Air Quality Research, 14 (5), 1392–1401. doi: https://doi.org/10.4209/aaqr.2013.11.0336
Mwangi, J. K., Lee, W.-J., Whang, L.-M., Wu, T. S., Chen, W.-H., Chang, J.-S. et. al. (2015). Microalgae Oil: Algae Cultivation and Harvest, Algae Residue Torrefaction and Diesel Engine Emissions Tests. Aerosol and Air Quality Research, 15 (1), 81–98. doi: https://doi.org/10.4209/aaqr.2014.10.0268
Che Mat, S., Idroas, M. Y., Hamid, M. F., Zainal, Z. A. (2018). Performance and emissions of straight vegetable oils and its blends as a fuel in diesel engine: A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 82, 808–823. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2017.09.080
Faris, A. S., Al-Naseri, S. K., Jamal, N., Isse, R., Abed, M., Fouad, Z. et. al. (2012). Effects of Magnetic Field on Fuel Consumption and Exhaust Emissions in Two-Stroke Engine. Energy Procedia, 18, 327–338. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2012.05.044
Patel, P. M., Rathod, G. P., Patel, T. M. (2014). Effect of Magnetic Field on Performance and Emission of Single Cylinder Four Stroke Diesel Engine. IOSR Journal of Engineering, 4 (5), 28–34. doi: https://doi.org/10.9790/3021-04552834
Habbo, A. R. A., Khalil, R. A., Hammoodi, H. S. (2011). Effect of Magnetizing the Fuel on the Performance of an S.I. Engine. AL-Rafdain Engineering Journal (AREJ), 19 (6), 84–90. doi: https://doi.org/10.33899/rengj.2011.26611
Ugare, V., Dhoble, A., Lutade, S., Mudafale, K. (2014). Performance of Internal Combustion (CI) Engine Under the Influence of Stong Permanent Magnetic Field. International Conference on Advances in Engineering & Technology – 2014 (ICAET-2014), 11–17. Available at: http://iosrjournals.org/iosr-jmce/papers/ICAET-2014/me/volume-5/3.pdf
Perdana, D., Wardana, I. N. G., Yuliati, L., Hamidi, N. (2018). The role of fatty acid structure in various pure vegetable oils on flame characteristics and stability behavior for industrial furnace. Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies, 5 (8 (95)), 65–75. doi: https://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2018.144243
Copyright (c) 2021 Dony Perdana, Satworo Adiwidodo, Mochamad Choifin, Wigo Ardi Winarko
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Our journal abides by the Creative Commons CC BY copyright rights and permissions for open access journals.
Authors, who are published in this journal, agree to the following conditions:
1. The authors reserve the right to authorship of the work and pass the first publication right of this work to the journal under the terms of a Creative Commons CC BY, which allows others to freely distribute the published research with the obligatory reference to the authors of the original work and the first publication of the work in this journal.
2. The authors have the right to conclude separate supplement agreements that relate to non-exclusive work distribution in the form in which it has been published by the journal (for example, to upload the work to the online storage of the journal or publish it as part of a monograph), provided that the reference to the first publication of the work in this journal is included.