Method for predicting the dissemination of hazardous substances in the soil during long-term storage of galvanic waste
The problem of production waste storage in open areas of an enterprise with a galvanic shop for the production of chips and microchips has been investigated. The composition of the sludge obtained after sewage treatment of the production of the copper line was investigated.
The aim of the article is to develop a mathematical model for predicting the distribution of compounds with heavy metals in the soil during long-term storage of galvanic sludge in open areas. Modeling the process of movement of salts from the earth's surface into the lower layers of the aeration zone occurs according to the laws of molecular diffusion. The method is developed on the basis of a mathematical model that makes it possible to estimate the spread over the depth of the ground and level of soil salinity over time using initial information about soil structure and its characteristics (molecular diffusion coefficient, volume humidity), annual volumes and conditions of sludge storage in the enterprise. Restrictions are set: the presence of harmful substances on the soil surface with a concentration that exceeds the permissible level; inadmissibility of harmful substances to aquifers.
The practical use of the method made it possible to identify the main dangers during long-term storage of galvanic waste in open areas. The dynamics of soil salinity levels and the depth of penetration of heavy metals increase over twenty years of conservation has been determined, as well as the possibility of hazardous compounds entering groundwater has been assessed.
Polyvinyl chloride packaging has a maximum life span of 15 years. Waste should not be stored in packages and in closed areas for more than 10 years. According to the prediction results, it can be stated that storage in landfills of galvanic waste for more than 15 years leads to significant salinization of the soil and creates conditions for an emergency situation, which is caused by harmful substances entering the water horizons.
Recommendations for improving storage conditions are given and the need for recycling of industrial waste is substantiated
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