Developing capacity sharing strategy for vehicular networks with integrated use of licensed and unlicensed spectrum

Keywords: 5G Cellular networks, unlicensed spectrum, NR-U, spectrum sharing, Mode selection


A widely deployed cellular network, supported by direct connections, can offer a promising solution that supports new services with strict requirements on access availability, reliability, and end-to-end (E2E) latency. The communications between vehicles can be made using different radio interfaces: One for cellular communication (i.e., cellular communication over the cellular network based on uplink (UL)/downlink (DL) connections) and the other for direct communication (i.e., D2D-based direct communications between vehicles which allows vehicular users (V-UEs) to communicate directly with others). Common cellular systems with licensed spectrum backed by direct communication using unlicensed spectrum can ensure high quality of service requirements for new intelligent transportation systems (ITS) services, increase network capacity and reduce overall delays. However, selecting a convenient radio interface and allocating radio resources to users according to the quality of service (QoS) requirements becomes a challenge. In this regard, let’s introduce a new radio resource allocation strategy to determine when it’s appropriate to establish the communication between the vehicles over a cellular network using licensed spectrum resources or D2D-based direct connections over unlicensed spectrum sharing with Wi-Fi. The proposed strategy aims at meeting the quality of service requirements of users, including reducing the possibility of exceeding the maximum delay restrictions and enhancing network capacity utilization in order to avoid service interruption. The proposed solution is evaluated by highlighting different conditions for the considered scenario, and it is demonstrated that the proposed strategy improves network performance in terms of transmitted data rate, packet success rate, latency, and resource usage


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Haider Albonda, University of Technology

Department of Control and System Engineering

Kadhum Al-Majdi, Ashur University College

Department of Electronic and Communications

Bahaa Abbas, Swansea University

College of Engineering


V2X Cellular Solutions. 5G Americas. Available at:

GPP TR 22.885. Study on LTE support for Vehicle to Everything (V2X) services. v14.0.0. Available at:

Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS); Vehicular Communications; Basic Set of Applications; Definitions. ETSI TR 102 638 V1.1.2. Available at:

GPP TR 22.886. Study on enhancement of 3GPP Support for 5G V2X Services. v15.1.0. Available at:

GPP TR 36.300. Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA) and Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network (E-UTRAN); Overall description; Stage 2 (v14.3.0, Release 15). Available at:

GPP TR 38.885. Study on NR Vehicle-to-Everything (V2X). (Release 16), document v16.0.0. Available at:

GPP TR 38.889. Study on NR-based access to unlicensed spectrum (Release 15), v16.0.0. Available at:

Qualcomm, Qualcomm Research LTE in Unlicensed Spectrum: Harmonious Coexistence with WiFi. Available at:

GPP 23.402. Architecture enhancements for non-3GPP accesses. v15.3.0. Available at:

Liu, J., Kato, N., Ma, J., Kadowaki, N. (2015). Device-to-Device Communication in LTE-Advanced Networks: A Survey. IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, 17 (4), 1923–1940. doi:

Asadi, A., Wang, Q., Mancuso, V. (2014). A Survey on Device-to-Device Communication in Cellular Networks. IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, 16 (4), 1801–1819. doi:

Ali, K. S., ElSawy, H., Alouini, M.-S. (2016). Modeling Cellular Networks With Full-Duplex D2D Communication: A Stochastic Geometry Approach. IEEE Transactions on Communications, 64 (10), 4409–4424. doi:

Yu, G., Xu, L., Feng, D., Yin, R., Li, G. Y., Jiang, Y. (2014). Joint Mode Selection and Resource Allocation for Device-to-Device Communications. IEEE Transactions on Communications, 62 (11), 3814–3824. doi:

Lin, X., Andrews, J. G., Ghosh, A. (2014). Spectrum Sharing for Device-to-Device Communication in Cellular Networks. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, 13 (12), 6727–6740. doi:

Chien, C., Chen, Y., Hsieh, H. (2012). Exploiting spatial reuse gain through joint mode selection and resource allocation for underlay device-to-device communications. The 15th International Symposium on Wireless Personal Multimedia Communications, 80–84. Available at:

Yu, C.-H., Doppler, K., Ribeiro, C. B., Tirkkonen, O. (2011). Resource Sharing Optimization for Device-to-Device Communication Underlaying Cellular Networks. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, 10 (8), 2752–2763. doi:

Liu, R., Yu, G., Qu, F., Zhang, Z. (2016). Device-to-Device Communications in Unlicensed Spectrum: Mode Selection and Resource Allocation. IEEE Access, 4, 4720–4729. doi:

Hao, F., Yongyu, C., Li, H., Zhang, J., Quan, W. (2016). Contention window size adaptation algorithm for LAA-LTE in unlicensed band. 2016 International Symposium on Wireless Communication Systems (ISWCS). doi:

Maglogiannis, V., Naudts, D., Shahid, A., Moerman, I. (2018). An adaptive LTE listen-before-talk scheme towards a fair coexistence with Wi-Fi in unlicensed spectrum. Telecommunication Systems, 68 (4), 701–721. doi:

Sathya, V., Mehrnoush, M., Ghosh, M., Roy, S. (2020). Wi-Fi/LTE-U Coexistence: Real-Time Issues and Solutions. IEEE Access, 8, 9221–9234. doi:

Wi-Fi vs. Duty Cycled LTE: A Balancing Act (2014). CableLabs. Available at:

Xing, C., Li, F. (2020). Unlicensed Spectrum-Sharing Mechanism Based on Wi-Fi Security Requirements Implemented Using Device to Device Communication Technology. IEEE Access, 8, 135025–135036. doi:

Patriciello, N., Lagen, S., Bojovic, B., Giupponi, L. (2020). NR-U and IEEE 802.11 Technologies Coexistence in Unlicensed mmWave Spectrum: Models and Evaluation. IEEE Access, 8, 71254–71271. doi:

Shi, Y., Cui, Q., Ni, W., Fei, Z. (2020). Proactive Dynamic Channel Selection Based on Multi-Armed Bandit Learning for 5G NR-U. IEEE Access, 8, 196363–196374. doi:

Lu, X., Petrov, V., Moltchanov, D., Andreev, S., Mahmoodi, T., Dohler, M. (2019). 5G-U: Conceptualizing Integrated Utilization of Licensed and Unlicensed Spectrum for Future IoT. IEEE Communications Magazine, 57 (7), 92–98. doi:

G; NG-RAN; Architecture Description (3GPP TS 38.401 version 15.5.0 Release 15). Available at:

Albonda, H. D. R., Perez-Romero, J. (2020). A New Mode Selection and Resource Reuse Strategy for V2X in Future Cellular Networks. 2020 IEEE 91st Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC2020-Spring). doi:

Albonda, H. D. R., Perez-Romero, J. (2018). An Efficient Mode Selection for Improving Resource Utilization in Sidelink V2X Cellular Networks. 2018 IEEE 23rd International Workshop on Computer Aided Modeling and Design of Communication Links and Networks (CAMAD). doi:

First Steps in 5G, Overcoming New Radio Device Design Challenges Series. Keysight Technologies. Available at:

Candal-Ventureira, D., Gonzalez-Castano, F. J., Gil-Castineira, F., Fondo-Ferreiro, P. (2021). Coordinated Allocation of Radio Resources to Wi-Fi and Cellular Technologies in Shared Unlicensed Frequencies. IEEE Access, 9, 134435–134456. doi:

GPP TS 38.211. NR; Physical Channels and Modulation (Release 15), document v15.2.0. Available at:

Chen, Q., Yu, G., Maaref, A., Li, G., Huang, A. (2016). Rethinking Mobile Data Offloading for LTE in Unlicensed Spectrum. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, 1–1. doi:

👁 179
⬇ 168
How to Cite
Albonda, H., Al-Majdi, K., & Abbas, B. (2022). Developing capacity sharing strategy for vehicular networks with integrated use of licensed and unlicensed spectrum. EUREKA: Physics and Engineering, (3), 149-158.

Most read articles by the same author(s)