The design of a fully balanced current–tunable active RC integrator

Keywords: active RC integrator, fully balanced technique, Monte Carlo (MC) method


The design of the active RC integrator presented in this research utilizes a fully balanced technique and current-tunable frequencies to create the active RC integrator and reliable circuit. The circuit is made up of six npn bipolar junction transistors (BJT), six resistors (R), and a capacitor (C), with the fully balanced technique used to make the circuit structure uncomplicated and symmetrical with signal differencing. This approach results in a low number of internal devices in the circuit, making it an attractive option for integrated circuit (IC) development. One of the key features of the fully balanced current-tunable active RC integrator is its ability to be frequency-tunable with bias current (If). This feature enables the circuit to be used in a variety of applications, including filter circuits, communication signal generators, instrumentation signal generators, and various automatic controls. The fully balanced design also ensures that the circuit is stable and robust, even in the presence of device parameter variations. To evaluate the performance of the active RC integrator, simulations were conducted using Pspice.

The results show that a fully current-tunable active RC integrator can be precisely tuned with the active bias to a value consistent with the theoretically calculated value. This demonstrates the efficiency and reliability of the circuit design and simulation method. The Monte Carlo (MC) method was also used to analyze the circuit performance in cases where the resistor (R) and capacitor (C) device had a 10 percent error and the transistor gain (β) was set to an error of 50 percent. The MC analysis showed that the phase shift (degree) and magnitude (dB) of the circuit were stable, and the circuit's performance was not significantly impacted by the device parameter variations. This further demonstrates the robustness and versatility of the fully balanced current-tunable active RC integrator design. Finally, harmonic distortion was evaluated to confirm the performance of the designed and developed fully balanced current-tunable active RC integrator. The results showed low levels of harmonic distortion, which indicates that the circuit is suitable for high-performance applications that require low distortion


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Author Biographies

Sittisak Roungrid, Kalasin University

Faculty of Engineering and Industrial Technology

Chadarat Khwunnak, Pitchayabundit College

Faculty of Science

Samran Lertkonsarn, Pitchayabundit College

Faculty of Engineering


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The design of a fully balanced current–tunable active RC integrator

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How to Cite
Roungrid, S., Khwunnak, C., & Lertkonsarn, S. (2023). The design of a fully balanced current–tunable active RC integrator. EUREKA: Physics and Engineering, (3), 80-89.