Investigation on high-strength low alloy 0.35Cr-1.9Ni-0.55Mo steel deposited on 20Cr substrate by wire and arc-based directed energy deposition
This article aims to observe the microstructure, mechanical properties, and interface bonding of a 0.35Cr-1.9Ni-0.55Mo alloy deposited on 20Cr steel by wire and arc-based directed energy deposition (WA-DED). For this purpose, different characterization techniques such as optical microscope, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and high-resolution X-ray diffractometer were used to analyze microstructure, chemical composition, and phases of the deposited material. Microhardness and tensile tests were also carried out. The results show that the microstructure of the deposited material is relatively homogeneous with a slight increase in grain size from the bottom to the top of the deposited part, thus resulting in a gradually decreasing trend in microhardness, from 288±16.78 HV0.1 (in the bottom) to 256±17.04 HV0.1 (in the top). The heat-affected zone (HAZ) is the hardest (301±2.70 HV0.1), while the substrate has the lowest microhardness (203±17.64 HV0.1). The tensile strengths of deposited materials are relatively isotropic in both the horizontal direction (HD) and vertical (VD) direction: UTSVD = 1013±9.29 MPa, USTHD = 985±24.58 MPa, YS(0.2%)VD = 570±4.51 MPa, and YS(0.2%)HD = 614±19.66 MPa. The tensile strengths of interface specimens are also comparable to those of the substrate materials (e.g., 951 vs. 972 MPa in UTS), indicating an excellent metallurgical bonding between the deposited and substrate materials. The results of this work confirm the efficiency of WA-DED technique to produce high-quality components in industry
Williams, S. W., Martina, F., Addison, A. C., Ding, J., Pardal, G., Colegrove, P. (2016). Wire + Arc Additive Manufacturing. Materials Science and Technology, 32 (7), 641–647. doi: https://doi.org/10.1179/1743284715y.0000000073
Wu, B., Pan, Z., Ding, D., Cuiuri, D., Li, H., Xu, J., Norrish, J. (2018). A review of the wire arc additive manufacturing of metals: properties, defects and quality improvement. Journal of Manufacturing Processes, 35, 127–139. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmapro.2018.08.001
. Jin, W., Zhang, C., Jin, S., Tian, Y., Wellmann, D., Liu, W. (2020). Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing of Stainless Steels: A Review. Applied Sciences, 10 (5), 1563. doi: https://doi.org/10.3390/app10051563
Le, V. T., Mai, D. S., Doan, T. K., Paris, H. (2021). Wire and arc additive manufacturing of 308L stainless steel components: Optimization of processing parameters and material properties. Engineering Science and Technology, an International Journal, 24 (4), 1015–1026. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jestch.2021.01.009
Cochrane, R. C. (2012). Phase transformations in microalloyed high strength low alloy (HSLA) steels. Phase Transformations in Steels, 153–212. doi: https://doi.org/10.1533/9780857096111.2.153
Sun, L., Jiang, F., Huang, R., Yuan, D., Guo, C., Wang, J. (2020). Anisotropic mechanical properties and deformation behavior of low-carbon high-strength steel component fabricated by wire and arc additive manufacturing. Materials Science and Engineering: A, 787, 139514. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msea.2020.139514
Rodrigues, T. A., Duarte, V., Avila, J. A., Santos, T. G., Miranda, R. M., Oliveira, J. P. (2019). Wire and arc additive manufacturing of HSLA steel: Effect of thermal cycles on microstructure and mechanical properties. Additive Manufacturing, 27, 440–450. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addma.2019.03.029
Dirisu, P., Ganguly, S., Mehmanparast, A., Martina, F., Williams, S. (2019). Analysis of fracture toughness properties of wire + arc additive manufactured high strength low alloy structural steel components. Materials Science and Engineering: A, 765, 138285. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msea.2019.138285
SM-110, AWS A5.28/ASME SFA-5.28 ER110S-G (2002). Huyndai Welding, Rev 0.3.
Grade 20Cr Steel Composition, Properties, Material Equivalent. World Material. Available at: https://www.theworldmaterial.com/20cr-steel/
Shi, Y., Han, Z. (2008). Effect of weld thermal cycle on microstructure and fracture toughness of simulated heat-affected zone for a 800MPa grade high strength low alloy steel. Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 207 (1-3), 30–39. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2007.12.049
Duarte, V. R., Rodrigues, T. A., Schell, N., Santos, T. G., Oliveira, J. P., Miranda, R. M. (2021). Wire and Arc Additive Manufacturing of High‐Strength Low‐Alloy Steel: Microstructure and Mechanical Properties. Advanced Engineering Materials, 23 (11), 2001036. doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/adem.202001036
Liu, H., Dong, Y., Zheng, H., Liu, X., Lan, P., Tang, H., Zhang, J. (2021). Precipitation Criterion for Inhibiting Austenite Grain Coarsening during Carburization of Al-Containing 20Cr Gear Steels. Metals, 11 (3), 504. doi: https://doi.org/10.3390/met11030504
Willis, R. D., Blanchard, F. T., Conner, T. L. (2002). Guidelines for the Application of SEM/EDX Analytical Techniques to Particulate Matter Samples. Technical Report.
Singh, K. K., Sangal, S., Murty, G. S. (2002). Hall–Petch behaviour of 316L austenitic stainless steel at room temperature. Materials Science and Technology, 18 (2), 165–172. doi: https://doi.org/10.1179/026708301125000384
Zhang, H., Liu, F., Ungar, G., Zheng, Z., Sun, Q., Han, Y. (2022). A regime beyond the Hall–Petch and inverse-Hall–Petch regimes in ultrafine-grained solids. Communications Physics, 5 (1). doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/s42005-022-01107-7
👁 33 ⬇ 26
Copyright (c) 2023 Duong Vu, Van Thao Le
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Our journal abides by the Creative Commons CC BY copyright rights and permissions for open access journals.
Authors, who are published in this journal, agree to the following conditions:
1. The authors reserve the right to authorship of the work and pass the first publication right of this work to the journal under the terms of a Creative Commons CC BY, which allows others to freely distribute the published research with the obligatory reference to the authors of the original work and the first publication of the work in this journal.
2. The authors have the right to conclude separate supplement agreements that relate to non-exclusive work distribution in the form in which it has been published by the journal (for example, to upload the work to the online storage of the journal or publish it as part of a monograph), provided that the reference to the first publication of the work in this journal is included.