Design, analysis and construction of a simple pulse duplicator system

Keywords: interchangeable prosthetic heart valves, left and right ventricle chamber


One of the most important human diseases that need to be considered in terms of development of the medical engineering devices is cardiovascular disease which is a significant cause of death globally recently. Valvular heart disease is normally treated by restoring or altering heart valves with an artificial one. But the new prosthetic valve designs necessitate testing for durability estimate and failure method. It is significant to simulate the circulation system by the building of a pulse duplicator system. This study is stated by clarifying the parameter and implementation steps of the pulse duplicator system in which the different researchers have utilized the system and tried to explain the design steps of using this system without going into the system design by steps or what are the main part of this system and how can be implemented, tested, and developed individually.

In this design, a DC motor produces, through a hydraulic piston, a flow pulse to the left ventricle chamber model, which is linked with two interchangeable prosthetic heart valves. The computer is used to control and process data from volumetric flow rate and image. The findings show that the linear displacement, the velocity of the piston and the linear acceleration regularly become significant particularly and follows a sinusoidal wave shape during one cycle, when (crank length/connecting rod length) value is equal 0.2 or less. Several sets of measured flow rate readings were obtained by using flow meter sensor YF-S201, results after calibration showed the error rate falls within permissible limits


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Taha Yaseen Khalaf, Al-Khwarizmi College of Engineering

Department of Biomedical Engineering

O. Hussein, University of Baghdad

Department of Automated Manufacturing Engineering

Al-Khwarizmi College of Engineering

Ahmed Y. Khalaf AL-Tarboolee, Al-Nahrain University

College of Biotechnology


Rzayeva, N. E. (2015). Designing a mobile system of robust noise monitoring of changes in the heart activity. Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies, 6 (9 (78)), 28–36. doi:

Al-Hayali, N. Kh., Nacy, S. M., Chiad, J. S., O. Hussein. (2021). Analysis and Evaluation of a Quasi-Passive Lower Limb Exoskeleton for Gait Rehabilitation. Al-Khwarizmi Engineering Journal, 17 (4), 36–47. doi:

Hussein, O., Wan Hasan, W. Z., Che Soh, A., Jafaar, H., Ramli, H. R., Ang, S. P., Abdul Hamid, Z. H. (2020). In-sole plantar pressure device with optimization measurement techniques. Indonesian Journal of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, 17 (2), 739. doi:

Ali Al Timemy, A. H., Abid, S. K., Ghaeb, N. H. (2009). A Proposed Artificial Intelligence Algorithm for Assessing of Risk Priority for Medical Equipment in Iraqi Hospital. Al-Khwarizmi Engineering Journal, 5 (1), 71–82. Available at:

Toner, G. (2017). Development of a Left Heart Simulator for Prosthetic Valve Evaluation. Drexel University. doi:

Traver, J. E., Nuevo-Gallardo, C., Tejado, I., Fernández-Portales, J., Ortega-Morán, J. F., Pagador, J. B., Vinagre, B. M. (2022). Cardiovascular Circulatory System and Left Carotid Model: A Fractional Approach to Disease Modeling. Fractal and Fractional, 6 (2), 64. doi:

Khienwad, T., Wannawat, P., Naiyanetr, P. (2016). Assessment of artificial heart valve using dynamic mock circulatory system. Internationnal Journal of Applied Biomedical Engineering, 9 (1), 21–26. Available at:

Rajeev, A., Sivakumaran, N., Sujesh, S., Muraleedharan, C. V. (2012). A linear after-load model for a cardio-vascular pulse duplicator. Proceedings of the International Conference on Advances in Computing, Communications and Informatics. doi:

Bazan, O., Ortiz, J. P. (2016). Experimental validation of a cardiac simulator for in vitro evaluation of prosthetic heart valves. Brazilian Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery. doi:

Lederer, S. (2016). In Vitro Visualization of Pediatric Sized Mechanical Heart Valve Performance Using Aortic Root Model in Mock Circulatory Loop. VCU University Archives. doi:

Lane, P. A. (2014). An Experimental Study of the Implementation of a Fluid Diode Inside a Sano Shunt. Nebraska. Available at:

Md Khudzari, A. (2012). The development and investigation of a novel pulsatile heart assist device. Aston University. Available at:

Saugel, B., Kouz, K., Scheeren, T. W. L., Greiwe, G., Hoppe, P., Romagnoli, S., de Backer, D. (2021). Cardiac output estimation using pulse wave analysis – physiology, algorithms, and technologies: a narrative review. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 126 (1), 67–76. doi:

Mariscal-Harana, J., Charlton, P. H., Vennin, S., Aramburu, J., Florkow, M. C., van Engelen, A. et al. (2021). Estimating central blood pressure from aortic flow: development and assessment of algorithms. American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology, 320 (2), H494–H510. doi:

Smissen, B. V. D. (2016). In-vitro modeling of the left heart, in Institute Biomedical Technology (IBiTech). Ghent University, 311.

Scotten, L. N., Siegel, R. (2015). Are anticoagulant independent mechanical valves within reach—fast prototype fabrication and in vitro testing of innovative bi-leaflet valve models. Annals of translational medicine, 3 (14). doi:

Bazan, O., Ortiz, J. P. (2011). Design and construction of a new pulse duplicator system for in vitro evaluation of prosthetic heart valves–conception of an experimental setup on mitral position. 21st Brazilian Congress of Mechanical Engineering. Available at:

Wessel, H. U., Kezdi, P., Lewis, F. J. (1962). A simple external pulse duplicator for observation of cardiac valvular action. The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, 43 (4), 513–516. doi:

Reddy, J. (2010). Development of a Physiological flow loop simulator for graft compliance testing. University of Cape Town.

Kitamura, T., Affeld, K., Mohnhaupt, A. (1987). Design of a New Pulse Duplicator System for Prosthetic Heart Valves. Journal of Biomechanical Engineering, 109 (1), 43–47. doi:

Manzoni, E., Rampazzo, M., Di Micco, L., Maria Susin, F. (2022). Mimicking the Complex Human Circulatory System via a Custom Hydro-mechanical Pulse Duplicator. 2022 IEEE Workshop on Complexity in Engineering (COMPENG). doi:

Fredrick Cornhill, J. (1977). An aortic-left ventricular pulse duplicator used in testing prosthetic aortic heart valves. The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, 73 (4), 550–558. doi:

Notué Kadjie, A., B. Tchawou Tchuisseu, E. (2021). A Multifunction Robot Based on the Slider-Crank Mechanism: Dynamics and Optimal Configuration for Energy Harvesting. International Journal of Robotics and Control Systems, 1 (3), 269–284. doi:

Gupta, R., Uchendu, W., Manjikian, J., Josephs, T. (2007). Development of a Pulsatile Flow Generator and Analysis of Wave Propagation in Blood Vessels for Implementation in the Early Detection of Arterial Disease. Worcester Polytechnic Institute. Available at:

Pramod, R. (2017). Black Board Cleaning Mechanism. International Journal of Advancements in Research & Technology, 6 (2). Available at:

Apurv, M. D., Lakhan, A. M. (2017). Design and Analysis of Connecting Rod with Mass Optimization. IJSRD, 4 (11). Available at:

Prashim, K. K., Handa, C. C., Zode, P. N. (2014). Generalized Methodology Of Synthesis Of Four Bar Mechanism. IJMERR, 3 (1). Available at:

Mutlu, H., Soliman, A. M. S., Karapinarli, G. (2021). Optimal synthesis of function-generating slider-crank mechanism based on a closed-form solution using five design parameters. Turkish Journal of Engineering, 5 (4), 183–192. doi:

Yanti Sari, D., Ambiyar, Nurdin, H., Yufrizal, A. (2021). The Use of MATLAB in Learning the Velocity Analysis with Relative Velocity Method on Slider Crank Mechanism. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1940 (1), 012078. doi:

Singh, V. K., Jhavar, P., Selokar, G. R. (2017). Literature Review On Synthesis Of Mechanism For Study Cum Computer Table. International Journal Of Advance Research And Innovative Ideas In Education, 3 (5), 503–509. Available at:

Satyanarayana, K., Mohan Rao, P. V. J., Niranjan Kumar, I. N. (2018). Some studies on mathematical modeling and dynamic stress analysis of a variable compression ratio diesel engine crankshaft. Mathematical Models in Engineering, 4 (1), 1–10. doi:

Shelake, H. S., Matekar, S. B. (2015). Kinematic Analysis Of Slider Crank Mechanism With Joint Clearance. International Engineering Research Journal (IERJ), 2, 824–828. Available at:

Sivakumar, N. et al. (2016). Design and Fabrication of Industrial Conveyor Using Crank Mechanism. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET), 3 (04), 2868–2879. Available at:

Tawade, I., Pendse, M., Chaudhari, H. (2015). Design and development of saline flow rate monitoring system using flow sensor, microcontroller and RF ZigBee module. International Journal of Engineering Research and General Science, 3 (3), 472–478. Available at:

Lahane, R. S., Pawar, N., Ghogardare, S. (2016). Analysis And Design Of Fuel Theft Prevention And Automation. IJESRT, 5 (7).

Mutesva, G. (2015). GSM based water distribution monitoring and control system. Afribary.

Indrasari, W., Iswanto, B. H., Andayani, M. (2018). Early Warning System of Flood Disaster Based on Ultrasonic Sensors and Wireless Technology. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 335, 012005. doi:

Iyengar, R. R. (2016). The water flow monitoring module. IJERGS, 4 (3), 106–113. Available at:

Nigus, H. (2015). Kinematics and load formulation of engine crank mechanism. Mechanics, Materials Science & Engineering. Available at:

Jiang, Z., Mao, Z., Yao, Z., Zhang, J. (2015). A Diagnosis method of the small end fault on reciprocating compressor connecting rod. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 90, 012025. doi:

Singh, P., Pramanik, D., Singh, R. V. (2015). Fatigue and Structural Analysis of Connecting Rod's Material Due to (C.I) Using FEA. IJAET, 4 (4), 245–253.

Montazersadgh, F. H., Fatemi, A. (2007). Stress analysis and optimization of crankshafts subject to dynamic loading. University of Toledo.

Bido, V. (2015). Flow and pressure behaviour in a pulse duplicator loop.experimental analysis. Available at:

He, J., Y, S., Mj, B., C, M. (2015). Correlating Sound and Flow Rate at a Tap. Procedia Engineering, 119, 864–873. doi:

Design, analysis and construction of a simple pulse duplicator system

👁 21
⬇ 25
How to Cite
Khalaf, T. Y., Hussein, O., & Khalaf AL-Tarboolee, A. Y. (2023). Design, analysis and construction of a simple pulse duplicator system. EUREKA: Physics and Engineering, (3), 129-143.