The investigation of bacterial adhesion of palatine tonsils epithelial cells in patient with infectious mononucleosis
Aim. To evaluate the features of pharynx tonsils mucous membrane colonization by pathogenic and opportunistic microorganisms by using the pharynx palatine tonsils epithelium electron microscopic examination of the patients with infectious mononucleosis and acute streptococcal tonsillitis.
Materials and methods. Two patients – patient P., 12 years old with a confirmed diagnosis of infectious mononucleosis and patient A., 8 years old with confirmed acute streptococcal tonsillitis. The patients were taken a bacteriological examination of the mucus and epithelium scraping from the surface of the pharyngeal tonsils. Tissue samples were examined in the electron microscopy laboratory of the Lviv National University.
Results and discussion. 36 tonsils epithelial tissue micro preparations of patient A. and 41 micro preparations of patient P. were studied. Streptococcus pyogenes, Str. pneumoniae, Str. viridans, Сandida albicans, as well as non-pathogenic bacteria: Diphtheroides sp., Neisseria sp., Corynebacterium spp. were identified as result of the patient P. bacteriological examination of mucus from the surface of the pharyngeal tonsils. Staph. aureus, Str. viridans, Str. pneumoniae were identified during a bacteriological examination of patient A. Eosinophils with a two-segmented nucleus, specific granularity, phagocytosed spherical bacteria in the cytoplasm were detected during the histological examination of the materials taken from the surface of the patient’s tonsils with acute tonsillitis. Research showed that bacteria were accumulated not only in the structure of extracellular detritus. Numerous bacteria accumulations were also found in the cytoplasm of the epithelial cells in the patient with infectious mononucleosis. The cell's shape looked like a bunch of grapes.
Conclusions. The electron microscopic examination showed differences in the coccal flora localization: the extracellular localization of bacteria in the patient with acute bacterial tonsillitis and intraepithelial presence of the bacteria in the patient with tonsillitis during infectious mononucleosis were found.
Boiarska, L. M., Hrebeniuk, L. V., Ivanova, K. O., Akhtyrsky, V. V. (2019). Condition of nasopharynx contamination in children with chronic tonsillitis and gastroesophageal reflux disease. Zaporozhye Medical Journal, 21 (5), 650–655. doi: http://doi.org/10.14739/2310-1210.2019.5.179441
Lee, J., Chang, D.-Y., Kim, S.-W., Choi, Y. S., Jeon, S.-Y., Racanelli, V. et. al. (2015). Age-related differences in human palatine tonsillar B cell subsets and immunoglobulin isotypes. Clinical and Experimental Medicine, 16 (1), 81–87. doi: http://doi.org/10.1007/s10238-015-0338-5
Räisänen, S., Myklebust, R., Bye, H.-M., Stenfors, L.-E. (2000). Bacterial penetration into tonsillar surface epithelium during infectious mononucleosis. The Journal of Laryngology & Otology, 114 (11), 848–852. doi: http://doi.org/10.1258/0022215001904149
Rieth, K. K. S., Gill, S. R., Lott-Limbach, A. A., Merkley, M. A., Botero, N., Allen, P. D., Miller, M. C. (2018). Prevalence of High-Risk Human Papillomavirus in Tonsil Tissue in Healthy Adults and Colocalization in Biofilm of Tonsillar Crypts. JAMA Otolaryngology–Head & Neck Surgery, 144 (3), 231–237. doi: http://doi.org/10.1001/jamaoto.2017.2916
Shelly, A., Gupta, P., Ahuja, R., Srichandan, S., Meena, J., Majumdar, T. (2020). Impact of Microbiota: A Paradigm for Evolving Herd Immunity against Viral Diseases. Viruses, 12 (10), 1150. doi: http://doi.org/10.3390/v12101150
Miller, J. M., Binnicker, M. J., Campbell, S., Carroll, K. C., Chapin, K. C., Gilligan, P. H. et. al. (2018). A Guide to Utilization of the Microbiology Laboratory for Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases: 2018 Update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the American Society for Microbiologya. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 67 (6), e1–e94. doi: http://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciy381
Yaxley, K. L. (2020). Infectious mononucleosis complicated by peritonsillar abscess and postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome: A case report. SAGE Open Medical Case Reports, 8. doi: http://doi.org/10.1177/2050313x20915413
Daddow, L. Y. (1986). An abbreviated method of the double lead stain technique. J Submicrosc Cytol, 18 (1), 221–224.
Reynolds, E. S. (1963). The use of lead citrate at high pH as an electron-opaque stain in electron microscopy. Journal of Cell Biology, 17 (1), 208–212. doi: http://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.17.1.208
Urbaniak, C., Lorenzi, H., Thissen, J., Jaing, C., Crucian, B., Sams, C. et. al. (2020). The influence of spaceflight on the astronaut salivary microbiome and the search for a microbiome biomarker for viral reactivation. Microbiome, 8 (1). doi: http://doi.org/10.1186/s40168-020-00830-z
Wu, S., Hammarstedt-Nordenvall, L., Jangard, M., Cheng, L., Radu, S. A., Angelidou, P. et. al. (2021). Tonsillar Microbiota: a Cross-Sectional Study of Patients with Chronic Tonsillitis or Tonsillar Hypertrophy. mSystems, 6 (2). doi: http://doi.org/10.1128/msystems.01302-20
Cruz-Muñoz, M. E., Fuentes-Pananá, E. M. (2018). Beta and Gamma Human Herpesviruses: Agonistic and Antagonistic Interactions with the Host Immune System. Frontiers in Microbiology, 8. doi: http://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2017.02521
Danstrup, C. S., Klug, T. E. (2019). Low rate of co-infection in complicated infectious mononucleosis. Danish Medical Journal, 66 (9), A5564.
Klug, T. E. (2017). Peritonsillar abscess: clinical aspects of microbiology, risk factors, and the association with parapharyngeal abscess. Danish Medical Journal, 64 (3), B5333.
Feller, L., Altini, M., Khammissa, R. A. G., Chandran, R., Bouckaert, M., Lemmer, J. (2013). Oral mucosal immunity. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology, 116 (5), 576–583. doi: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.oooo.2013.07.013
Matrajt, L., Gantt, S., Mayer, B. T., Krantz, E. M., Orem, J., Wald, A. et. al. (2017). Virus and host-specific differences in oral human herpesvirus shedding kinetics among Ugandan women and children. Scientific Reports, 7 (1). doi: http://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-12994-0
LaPenta, D., Rubens, C., Chi, E., Cleary, P. P. (1994). Group A streptococci efficiently invade human respiratory epithelial cells. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 91 (25), 12115–12119. doi: http://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.91.25.12115
Nozawa, T., Iibushi, J., Toh, H., Minowa-Nozawa, A., Murase, K., Aikawa, C., Nakagawa, I. (2021). Intracellular Group A Streptococcus Induces Golgi Fragmentation To Impair Host Defenses through Streptolysin O and NAD-Glycohydrolase. mBio, 12 (1). doi: http://doi.org/10.1128/mbio.01974-20
Soderholm, A. T., Barnett, T. C., Korn, O., Rivera-Hernandez, T., Seymour, L. M., Schulz, B. L. et. al. (2018). Group A Streptococcus M1T1 Intracellular Infection of Primary Tonsil Epithelial Cells Dampens Levels of Secreted IL-8 Through the Action of SpyCEP. Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology, 8. doi: http://doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2018.00160
Núñez-Acurio, D., Bravo, D., Aguayo, F. (2020). Epstein–Barr Virus—Oral Bacterial Link in the Development of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma. Pathogens, 9 (12), 1059. doi: http://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9121059
Silvoniemi, A., Mikola, E., Ivaska, L., Jeskanen, M., Löyttyniemi, E., Puhakka, T. et. al. (2020). Intratonsillar detection of 27 distinct viruses: A cross‐sectional study. Journal of Medical Virology, 92 (12), 3830–3838. doi: http://doi.org/10.1002/jmv.26245
Faden, H., Callanan, V., Pizzuto, M., Nagy, M., Wilby, M., Lamson, D. et. al. (2016). The ubiquity of asymptomatic respiratory viral infections in the tonsils and adenoids of children and their impact on airway obstruction. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, 90, 128–132. doi: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijporl.2016.09.006
Klymenko, Kh. (2021). Clinical features of infectious mononucleosis in children considering the aspects of the oral microflora colonization. The Scientific Heritage, 60 (2), 29–33. doi: http://doi.org/10.24412/9215-0365-2021-60-2-29-33
Bin Abu Bakar, M., McKimm, J., Haque, S. Z., Majumder, A. A., Haque, M. (2018). Chronic tonsillitis and biofilms: a brief overview of treatment modalities. Journal of Inflammation Research, 11, 329–337. doi: http://doi.org/10.2147/jir.s162486
Copyright (c) 2021 Aleksandr Nadraga, Aleksandr Lutsyk, Khrystyna Klymenko, Olena Khomyn
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Our journal abides by the Creative Commons CC BY copyright rights and permissions for open access journals.
Authors, who are published in this journal, agree to the following conditions:
1. The authors reserve the right to authorship of the work and pass the first publication right of this work to the journal under the terms of a Creative Commons CC BY, which allows others to freely distribute the published research with the obligatory reference to the authors of the original work and the first publication of the work in this journal.
2. The authors have the right to conclude separate supplement agreements that relate to non-exclusive work distribution in the form in which it has been published by the journal (for example, to upload the work to the online storage of the journal or publish it as part of a monograph), provided that the reference to the first publication of the work in this journal is included.