Combined prevention of fetal growth restriction based on determination of diagnostic markers
Due to the morbidity of mothers and newborns caused by fetal growth restriction (FGR) and preeclampsia, preventive measures should be taken, especially in women at high risk of developing these conditions. Many studies have been conducted on the prevention of FGR and preeclampsia in high-risk women, especially anticoagulants, aspirin, paravastatin, nitric oxide, microelements (L-arginine, folic acid, vitamins E and C, phytonutrients, vitamin D) and calcium.
The aim is to improve perinatal consequences by preventing FGR in high-risk women.
Materials and methods: A prospective study of 137 pregnant women in the period of 110–136 weeks was conducted at the Perinatal Center in Kyiv. Pregnant women were divided into 3 groups. The main group included 47 women at high risk of FGR who received therapy (low doses of aspirin, low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) and vitamin and micro elements drugs). The comparison group included 45 women who had a high risk of FGR but did not receive treatment. The control group consisted of 45 women who were not at risk of FGR. The frequency of FGR and placental dysfunction were analyzed as well as a fetal distress was analyzed ante- and intranatally.
Results: Therapy with low doses of aspirin, LMWH and a complex preparation of vitamins and micro elements improves the course of pregnancy and gestational complications. In the main group FGR was detected in 8.5 %, in the comparison group – in 17.8 %, in the control group – 4.4 %. Placental dysfunction was detected in 13.3 % in the control group, and only 6.4 % in the main group that was close to the control group – 2.2 %. Similar tendencies were found for fetal distress ante- and intranatally.
Conclusions: The proposed prophylactic measures can improve maternal outcomes by reducing the level of gestational complications in pregnant women with biochemical signs of risk of FGR development. In addition, these preventive measures can reduce the frequency of children births with growth restriction, which significantly reduces early neonatal and perinatal morbidity and mortality.
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