Use of probiotics for formation of microflora of gastrointestinal tract of calves
The results of the use of probiotic strains of microorganisms of the Bacillus family for the correction and formation of the microflora of the gastrointestinal tract and the impact on metabolism in calves are presented.
The aim of the study. To analyze the effect of probiotics on the microflora of the gastrointestinal tract in calves and biochemical parameters of blood in calves up to one month.
Materials and methods. The research was conducted during 2020 in the conditions of Ukrainian farms for cattle breeding. Five experimental groups of five one-week-old calves were formed in each and one control group. Calves were kept separately in the same conditions on the same diet, but with feeding together with colostrum substitute probiotics of five grams per animal: Bacillus amyloliquefaciense, Bacillus mucilaginosus, Bacillus coagulans, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus pumilus. The strains are deposited and produced by “Kronos Agro” Ukraine.
Results. It was found that as a result of studies when feeding calves B. coagulans, B. pumilus and B. mucilaginosus the number of Lactobacillus sp. was 80 % higher than in the control group. The level of opportunistic pathogens in the experimental group with B. coagulans had minimal values. Animals in the group where B. mucilaginosus was given had a higher amount of Candida - up to 300 CFU/g and Enterobacteriaceae – 200 CFU/g; which is 50 % less compared to control groups, but more than in the experiment with B. coagulans. According to the results of biochemical examination of blood serum in calves, the absence of toxic effects of probiotic strains: Bacillus amyloliquefaciense, Bacillus mucilaginosus, Bacillus coagulans, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus pumilus on the internal organs of animals was established.
Conclusions. It was found that the maximum positive effect on the microflora of the gastrointestinal tract of calves up to 30 days of age had B. coagulans (1×109) when fed at a dose of 5 g per animal. The amount of Lactobacillus sp. was the maximum and reached 800 CFU/g, which is 80 % more than in the control group. At the same time, the level of opportunistic pathogens in the experimental group with B. coagulans had minimal indicators and was: Clostridium by 20 %, Escherichia coli – by 70 %, Enterobacteriaceae, Staphylococcus and Candida – 100 % less than the control.
In the study of biochemical parameters, it was found that the activity of enzymes, protein and glucose levels in the serum of experimental animals fed with B. coagulans were within the physiological norm, indicating a normal metabolic process and no toxic effects.
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