Assessment and predictors of blood glucose levels in hypertensives attending a secondary health centre: relationship with physical activity and diet quality

Keywords: diet, glucose, hypertensives, physical activity, predictors


The aim: this study aims to assess the prevalence of hyperglycaemia, the association between diet quality, physical exercise and blood glucose levels among hypertensives attending a secondary health centre in Nigeria. There is a paucity of data concerning these issues and the study would contribute positively to future management of the patients.

Methods: the study was a cross-sectional study of 354 hypertensives that was conducted at the State Hospital, Oyo, Nigeria. The systematic sampling technique was used to recruit patients, and the data were analysed using SPSS software version 23. Linear regression was done to determine the predictors of hyperglycaemia, and logistic regression was done to determine the predictors of diet quality.

Results: the mean age of the respondents was 52.60(SD±8.26) years. The prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes in this cohort was 19.60 %. The association of glycated haemoglobin (HbAic) with High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) was negative, weak in strength and statistically significant (p-value=0.034). For every 1 unit decrease in High Density Lipoprotein (HDL), there was a statistically significant increase in HbAic by about 0.383 units (95 % C.I equals -0.737 to -0.029, p-value=0.034). For every 1 unit increase in total Cholesterol, there was a significant increase in HbAic by about 0.158 units (95 % CI equals 0.007 to 0.308, p-value=0.04). Age group <45 years were about 2 times less likely to have good diet quality than those of 55 years and above (OR=0.502; 95 % CI=0.270 – 0.932, p-value=0.029).

Conclusions: the study has assisted to characterise this population of hypertensives in terms of serum glucose levels. The prevalence of hyperglycaemia was high among these hypertensives. The predictors of hyperglycaemia were HDL and Cholesterol. Also, the predictor of good diet quality was the age of the respondents


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Ismaheel Aderogba Azeez, University College Hospital Ibadan

Department of Family Medicine

Adesoji Adedipe Fasanmade, University of Ibadan

Department of Medicine

College of Medicine

Temitope Ilori, University of Ibadan Nigeria

Department of Community Medicine

College of Medicine


Global Report on Diabetes (2021). WHO: World Health Organisation. Available at: Last accessed: 20.01.2022

Adeleye, J. O. (2021). The hazardous terrain of diabetes mellitus in Nigeria: the time for action is now. Research Journal of Health Sciences, 9 (1), 69–76. doi:

Adeleke, O. R., Ayenigbara, G. O. (2019). Preventing diabetes mellitus in Nigeria: Effect of physical exercise, appropriate diet and lifestyle modification. Dubai Diabetes and Endocrinology Journal, 25 (3-4), 113–117. doi:

Mogre, V., Abedandi R., Salifu, Z. S. (2014). Distorted self-perceived weight status and underestimation of weight status in diabetes mellitus type 2 patients. PLoS ONE, 9 (4). doi:

Bello, B., Amira, C., Buraimoh, R., Nwizu, C. C. (2016). Obesity among adult Nigerians: Relationship with blood pressure, blood sugar, and proteinuria’, Saudi Journal of Obesity, 4 (2), 68. doi:

Tino, S., Mayanja, B. N., Mubiru, M. C., Eling, E., Ddumba, E., Kaleebu, P. et. al. (2020). Prevalence and factors associated with overweight and obesity among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Uganda – a descriptive retrospective study. BMJ, 10 (11), 1–8. doi:

Hypertension in adults: diagnosis and management (2019). NICE guideline. Available at: Last accessed: 15.03.2022

Goyal, R. C. (2013). Research Methodology for Health Professionals. Including Proposal, Thesis and Article Writing. New Delhi: Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers(P) LTD.

Adediran, O. S., Okpara, I. C., Adeniyi, O. S., Jimoh, A. K. (2013). Hypertension prevalence in an Urban and Rural area of Nigeria. Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences, 4 (4), 149–154.

Johnston, C. S., Bliss, C., Knurick, J. R., Scholtz, C. (2018). Rapid Eating Assessment for Participants [shortened version] scores are associated with Healthy Eating Index-2010 scores and other indices of diet quality in healthy adult omnivores and vegetarians. Nutrition Journal, 17 (1). doi:

Cleland, C. L., Hunter, R. F., Kee, F., Cupples, M. E., Sallis, J. F., Tully, M. A. (2014). Validity of the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) in assessing levels and change in moderate-vigorous physical activity and sedentary behaviour. BMC Public Health, 14 (1). doi:

Punthakee, Z., Goldenberg, R., Katz, P. (2018). Definition, Classification and Diagnosis of Diabetes, Prediabetes and Metabolic Syndrome. Canadian Journal of Diabetes, 42, 10–15. doi:

Ufuoma, C., Godwin, Y. D., Kester., Ngozi, J. C. (2016). Determinants of glycaemic control among persons with type 2 diabetic mellitus in Niger Delta. Sahel Medical Journal, 19, 190–195. doi:

Rai, N., Sharma, H. B., Kumari, R., Kailashiya, J. (2020). Assessment of obesity indices for prediction of hyperglycemia in adult population of Varanasi (Uttar Pradesh). India’. Indian Journal of P hysiology and Pharmacology, 64 (3), 195–200. doi:

Gupta, S., Bansal, S. (2020). Does a rise in BMI cause an increased risk of diabetes ?: Evidence from India. PLOS ONE, 15 (4). doi:

Olawuyi, A. T., Adeoye, I. A. (2018). The prevalence and associated factors of non- communicable disease risk factors among civil servants in Ibadan, Nigeria. PLOS ONE, 13 (9). doi:

Akinwusi, P. O., Asekun-Olarinmoye, E. O., Adebimpe, W. O., Isawumi, M. A., Hassan, M. B., Olowe, O. A. et. al. (2017). Cardiovascular risk factors and electrocardiographic pattern in two rural communities of Osun state in South West Nigeria. Current Research: Cardiology, 4 (2), 144–150. doi:

Jacobsen, S., Vistisen, D., Vilsboll, S., Bruun, J. M., Ewers, C. (2020). The quality of dietary carbohydrate and fat is associated with better metabolic control in persons with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Nutrition Journal, 19 (1), 1–8. doi:

Odeyinka, O. T., Ajayi, I. O. (2017). Prevalence of hypertension and diabetes and their determinants among commercial drivers in Ibadan metropolis, South-Western Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Cardiology, 14, 75–83. doi:

Aljaffar, A. G. Y. (2018). A Study of Serum Lipid Profile among Obese and Non-Obese Individuals: A Hospital based Study from Karbala, Iraq’. International Journal of Contemporary Medical Research, 5 (4), 17–20. doi:

VinodMahato, R., Giyawali, P., Raut, P. P. (2011). Association between glycaemic control and serum lipid profile in type 2 diabetes patients: glycated haemoglobin as a dual biomarker. Biomedical Research, 22 (3), 375–380.

Onianwa, P. O., Ayorinde, M. O., Akanbi, F. O. M., Are, O. O., Nkom, A. T., Akintola, G. O. (2021). Outcome of an educational training Programme on blood glucose monitoring among Nurses in the Management of hypoglycaemia and hyperglycaemia. Journal of Pre-Clinical and Clinical Research, 15 (1), 20–25. doi:

Afolalu, T. D., Wada, O. Z., Olawade, D. B., Suntai, A. D. (2020). Prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus among Adult Residents of Tinda Rural Community, Nigeria. Journal of Biosciences and Medicines, 8 (11), 107–116. doi:

Muuche, A. A., Olayemi, O. O., Gete, Y. K. (2019). Prevalence of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and associated factors among women attending ante-natal care at Gonda town pubic health facilities, North-West Ethiopia. BMC pregnancy and childbirth, 19 (1), 334. doi:

Muche, A. A., Olayemi, O. O., Gete, Y. K. (2020). Predictors of post-partum glucose intolerance among patients with gestational diabetes mellitus a prospective cohort study in Ethiopia based on updated diagnostic criteria. BMJ Open, 10 (8). doi:

Oriji, V. K., Ojule, J. D., Fumudoh, B. O. (2017). Prediction of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in Early Pregnancy: Is Abdominal Skin Fold Thickness 20 mm or More an Independent Risk Predictor? Journal of Biosciences and Medicines, 5 (11), 13–26. doi:

Adejoh, S. O. (2014). Diabetes knowledge, health beliefs, and diabetes management among the Igala, Nigeria. SAGE open, 4 (2). doi:

Olatona, F. A., Airede, C. A., Aderibigbe, S. A., Osibogun, A. (2019). Nutritional knowledge, dietary habits and nutritional status of diabetic patients attending teaching hospitals in Lagos Nigeria. Journal of Community Medicine and Primary Health Care, 31 (2), 90–103. doi: ttps://

Martins, S. O., Folashire, O. F., Irabor, A. E. (2017). Prevalence and Predictors of prediabetes among administrative staff of a tertiary health centre, South-Western Nigeria. Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research, 15 (2), 114–123. doi:

👁 14
⬇ 22
How to Cite
Azeez, I. A., Fasanmade, A. A., & Ilori, T. (2022). Assessment and predictors of blood glucose levels in hypertensives attending a secondary health centre: relationship with physical activity and diet quality. EUREKA: Health Sciences, (3), 49-58.
Medicine and Dentistry