Modern concepts of teeth whitening – a narrative review

Keywords: abrasives, bleaching, dental floss, esthetics, hydrogen peroxide, mouthwash, toothpaste, teeth, tooth discolouration, whitening


Whitening has been known since Biblical times. Nowadays, in the developed world, patients are placing a stronger interest in the aesthetic appearance of their teeth. As a result, public demand for aesthetic dentistry, including tooth whitening, has recently increased. Aesthetics of the teeth is of great importance to many patients.

The aim is to summarise and discuss the teeth whitening procedure, tools, materials, and methods, as well as its efficacy and safety. In addition, the paper aims to provide full and comprehensive information for dentists and their patients about the merits and perils of whitening.

Methods. Relevant literature from Scopus published in English was selected using the following search criteria "tooth OR teeth AND whitening OR bleaching" by 2022. In total, there were found 3840 papers. Then, we applied the inclusion and exclusion criteria to the selected scientific papers to choose the relevant ones.

Results. A comprehensive study of the available information related to means and products for teeth whitening was carried out. Whitening may be accomplished by the physical removal of the stain or a chemical reaction to lighten the tooth colour. The indications for appropriate use of tooth-whitening methods and products depend on the correct diagnosis of the discolouration. When used appropriately, tooth-whitening methods are safe and effective.

Conclusions. Tooth whitening is a form of dental treatment and should be completed as part of a comprehensive treatment plan developed by a dentist after an oral examination.


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Author Biographies

Svitlana Boitsaniuk, I. Horbachevsky Ternopil National Medical University

Department of Dental Therapy

Orest Kochan, Lviv Polytechnic National University

Department of Measuring Information Technology

Mariana Levkiv, I. Horbachevsky Ternopil National Medical University

Department of Dental Therapy


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How to Cite
Boitsaniuk, S., Kochan, O., & Levkiv, M. (2022). Modern concepts of teeth whitening – a narrative review. EUREKA: Health Sciences, (6), 31-43.
Medicine and Dentistry