HYPOMETHYLATING AGENTS IN TREATMENT OF MYELODYSPLASTIC SYNDROME
Thelkey to the successful treatment of myelodysplastic syndrome is the careful characterization and diagnosis of the disease, which includes clinical, cytogenetic, biological and molecular investigation of individual patients. Today therapeutic approaches to the treatment of such patients are differentiated and depend, first of all, on the subtype of the disease, age, general condition of the patients and the possibility of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. For young patients, the best option is transplantation, whereas in older patients, the standard of therapy is the use of hypomethylating agents (azacitidine, decitabine). These drugs promote hematologic improvement, elimination of transfusion dependence and prolongation of the duration of both general and leukemia free survival in elderly patients with concomitant pathology.
Despite the fact that therapy with hypomethylating drugs is widely used and has good results, many respondents are losing their response within 1–2 years. Reasons for the development of resistance to this type of treatment are still unclear, and the insensitivity to drugs is associated with very poor prognosis in patients with all subtypes of myelodysplastic syndrome. Such data and the presence of numerous genetic and epigenetic mechanisms for the development of this pathology have prompted the use of combinations of drugs with different application points and are relevant in terms of research. In the literature review, the results of clinical studies on the use of hypomethylating agents in patients with MDS of low and high risk, as in monotherapy and combined schemes are presented.
The nearest prospect of treatment of myelodysplastic syndrome is the creation of new treatment regimens based on a combination of drugs of different pathogenetic direction for the elimination of the dysplastic clone in order to achieve not only long-term remissions, but also lengthening the duration of overall survival, especially for patients with high risk myelodysplastic syndrome.
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