Creation of an observation network for assessment of the impact of the pig complex on the groundwater aquifer
Ukraine, as a party to the Association Agreement, in accordance with Directive 2000/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council, recognizes water as the most expensive resource on our planet, which must be protected and saved. Every country and every inhabitant of the planet must do everything possible to reduce the thoughtless use of water and stop water pollution. The priority is the identification of water users and "polluters", as well as the detection and prevention of pollution of water resources, which includes the identification of water sampling points around potential sources of pollution.
The aim of the research is to determine the impact of pig farms on the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of groundwater using existing water intakes to preserve natural water resources from pollution and depletion. An important point for monitoring in this situation is the use of existing water intakes (bores and wells) without additional construction of observation bores and interference in the environment.
To complete the study, it is necessary to create an observation (monitoring) network of selected points and establish the frequency of their study. The observation network should determine the level (static and dynamic) as well as the quality of groundwater, which reflects background concentrations (natural or "conditionally natural"). "Conditionally natural" concentrations may indicate an excess of pollutants, associated with anthropogenic impacts that occurred prior to the activities of a particular entity, in respect of which the study is conducted. Given the changes in the quality characteristics of water, caused by external factors, "conditionally natural" concentrations can be taken as background. The obtained information will allow, depending on the quality and quantity of groundwater (their level) to make management decisions on the management of groundwater resources. Groundwater in rural settlements near enterprises is in most cases the only source of water supply.
The laboratory analysis of water samples from selected points in 2020 showed an excess of color, odor at 60 °C, turbidity, total iron in bores and wells. The detected elevations are due to the peculiarity of the geological structure (aquifer of Eocene sediments). The excess in the hydrogen index is almost 10 times from the surface water body, which can be taken as "conditionally natural" (background) with further study of the specific impact of the complex on the environment. The main indicators that may indicate direct contamination of the pig complex, such as nitrates, nitrites, ammonium nitrogen and microbiological studies, do not exceed the normalized values, set for drinking water. In this case, the specific indicators are within normal limits. Petroleum products were not detected in the studied samples
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