EUREKA: Social and Humanities https://journal.eu-jr.eu/social <p align="justify"><strong>EUREKA: Social and Humanities&nbsp;</strong>– scientific journal whose main aim is to publish materials aimed at the study of society and human relations in society as well as economic relations. A distinctive feature of the manuscripts submitted to the journal, is the emphasis on the use of system analysis techniques, allows to see&nbsp;<strong><em>new discoveries at the intersection of different fields of knowledge.</em></strong></p> Scientific Route OÜ en-US EUREKA: Social and Humanities 2504-5563 <p style="text-align: justify;">Our journal abides by the <a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Creative Commons CC BY</a> copyright rights and permissions for open access journals.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Authors, who are published in this journal, agree to the following conditions:</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">1. The authors reserve the right to authorship of the work and pass the first publication right of this work to the journal under the terms of a <a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Creative Commons CC BY</a>, which allows others to freely distribute the published research with the obligatory reference to the authors of the original work and the first publication of the work in this journal.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;2. The authors have the right to conclude separate supplement agreements that relate to non-exclusive work distribution in the form in which it has been published by the journal (for example, to upload the work to the online storage of the journal or publish it as part of a monograph), provided that the reference to the first publication of the work in this journal is included.</p> How fourth industrial revolution skillsets mediate the relationship between work integrated learning, graduate employability, and future job https://journal.eu-jr.eu/social/article/view/2425 <p>The emerging work context of the fourth industrial revolution (4IR) has increased the industry's calls for future-capable graduates who can demonstrate digital literacy and innovation knowledge, and other behavioural competencies for employability. Gaps between work integrated learning (WIL) and 4IR competencies in driving graduates' transition to the employment of the future exist in the literature. With a structural equation modelling (SEM) approach, this study examines the nexus between WIL, graduate employability, and future job. It further examines whether 4IR skillsets can boost (mediate) the effectiveness of WIL in enhancing graduate employability. With a correlational non-experimental research design, 375 engineering students from two universities in Nigeria were sampled. A composite-based SEM, comprising measurement and structural assessment model, was used to test the hypothesized model, implemented in SmartPLS software version 3.3.3. The instrument's validity and reliability were established through hetero trait – Mono trait ratio and average variance extracted. The structural model analysis rejected three hypotheses, testing direct relationships between WIL, graduate employability, and future job. Findings showed that WIL had a positive and significant relationship with graduate employability, 4IR skillset, and future job. It was established, that the 4IR skillset plays a considerable role and positively mediates the relationship between WIL and graduate employability. The study offers important insights on WIL as a strategy for developing graduate employability to prepare students for employment in the digital era</p> Waliu Adegbite Cookie Govender Copyright (c) 2022 Waliu Adegbite, Cookie Govender https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-07-29 2022-07-29 4 3 17 10.21303/2504-5571.2022.002425 Comprehending stakeholders’ involvement in the integrated development planning process as a tool for improved community participation https://journal.eu-jr.eu/social/article/view/2426 <p>This study is primarily aimed at comprehending the key stakeholders, involved in applying the Integrated Development Planning (IDP) process for improved community participation in the Tzaneen municipal area. It is argued in this study, that the IDP is centred on the priorities and desires of the communities. Communities have the opportunity to engage in identifying their most desired needs. The IDP process requires all stakeholders who live and do business within a municipal jurisdiction to partake in the design and execution of the municipal development plan, also known as the IDP. This study is grounded in the ladder of citizen participation theory, pioneered by Arnstein Sherry in 1969. Arnstein (1969)'s ladder of citizen participation theory talks about community involvement in the planning process in the United States. This empirical study was conducted in the Tzaneen municipal area, South Africa, and four hundred and ten (410) participants were sampled in the area through probability and non-probability sampling techniques. The study adopted a mixed-method research approach. The data was collected and analysed until saturation was reached. Data were collected using surveys, semi-structured interviews, and a review of existing literature. This study revealed that more than half (56 %) of participants indicated that they were not consulted and encouraged to participate in the IDP process as relevant stakeholders. Consultation of stakeholders is often inadequate. Most of the participants are dissatisfied with their representatives' manner and level of involvement, and they do not feel well represented. This study concludes by recommending that municipalities adhere to the Municipal Systems Act (2000) and the Republic of South Africa (1996) Constitution, both of which require municipalities to actively involve stakeholders in the planning process to provide services sustainably and satisfactory. The <em>Batho Pele</em> principles should be followed to guarantee a harmonious relationship between the municipality and its stakeholders. Stakeholders will have reasonable expectations regarding service delivery due to effective consultation.</p> John Mamokhere Daniel Francois Meyer Copyright (c) 2022 John Mamokhere, Daniel Francois Meyer https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-07-29 2022-07-29 4 18 32 10.21303/2504-5571.2022.002426 The impact of social media as a strategic approach to corporate communication when handling crises at a selected South African bank https://journal.eu-jr.eu/social/article/view/2489 <p>This study investigates the impact of social media as a strategic approach to corporate communication when handling crises at Bank X in the Gauteng province of South Africa. The study had three over-arching objectives; to determine the challenges that are encountered when handling crises about communication at Bank X, to determine if the leadership has the willingness to change their approach when formulating the strategy; to determine if social media has an impact on strategy formulation of crisis communication at Bank X; and lastly to make recommendations to Bank X’s leadership on how to incorporate the social media component as a communication approach to effectively handle crises. This research followed a qualitative research approach through one-on-one Microsoft Teams in-depth interviews with 10 participants. The study, through the analysis of the primary data, secondary data, and literature reviews, underpins and supports that there is an opportunity for Bank X to incorporate social media as a strategic element to the crisis communication strategy. The organisation’s crisis communication strategy needs to incorporate social media from a strategic perspective for it to be ahead of the curve when a crisis emerges online. The implications for Bank X are a lesson in the evolution of technology in the communication space and how imperative it is for the bank to evolve.</p> Evelynne Jane Chotia Anton M. Pillay Jeremiah Madzimure Copyright (c) 2022 Evelynne Jane Chotia, Anton M. Pillay, Jeremiah Madzimure https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-07-29 2022-07-29 4 33 42 10.21303/2504-5571.2022.002489 The geostrategy of the African Continental Free Trade Agreement (AFCFTA) and third parties: a focus on China https://journal.eu-jr.eu/social/article/view/2460 <p>The primary objective of this article is to interrogate Sino-Africa trade relations and questions if Africa a passive receiver of both Chinese and Western influence? This paper is divided into four sections. The first section of the paper outlines the African Continental Free Trade Agreement (AFCTA). It is followed by a discussion of the political factors, driving Africa's desire for greater integration. The second section explains the potential trade impacts of the AfCFTA on African states and illustrates the rationale and appetite for the AfCFTA. Section three examines bilateral relations with third-parties, with a focus on China, speculating about the future of Sino-African trade relations and the AfCFTA. Finally, section four concludes the study. The discussion and findings suggest the following. Firstly, that African officials perceive the role of China in a positive light, and China is seen as a fellow developing country. Secondly, African leaders laud China for its contribution to the growth of African nations and their economic development. Thirdly, however, China is criticized for poor working conditions, this section should read and is seen to negotiate is seen to negotiate unfair deals and for some scholars China perpetuates the neo-colonial relationship and, in some countries, there have been violent protests against China. This study encompassed a qualitative, exploratory approach, which relied heavily on both primary and secondary sources of data.</p> Juliet Eileen Joseph Copyright (c) 2022 Juliet Eileen Joseph https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-07-29 2022-07-29 4 43 57 10.21303/2504-5571.2022.002460 Relationship between self-handicapping and academic buoyancy among final year students in secondary schools https://journal.eu-jr.eu/social/article/view/2451 <p>The study examined the relationship between self-handicapping and academic buoyancy among final year students in secondary schools in Nsukka education zone of Enugu State of Nigeria. This study adopted the cross-sectional survey research design. Through multistage sampling technique, 120 final year students were selected. The questionnaires, such as Academic Buoyancy Scale (ABS) and Self-handicapping Scale were used to collect data. The internal validity of self-handicapping and academic buoyancy scales were ascertained using the Bartlett’s tests for Sphericity and it was reported to be highly significant (p&lt; 0.05). The internal consistency of the questionnaires was ensured by using the Cronbach's alpha and a value of 0.844 and 0.867 was reported for the self-handicapping and academic buoyancy scales respectively. The quantitative data from questionnaires was analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. The results showed that there was low negative insignificant relationship between the two variables (Beta=-.105; R=-.105; p &lt; .253), indicating that high level self-handicapping is negatively associated with academic buoyancy among final year students in secondary schools. The study recommends that student counselors should develop structured and comprehensive cognitive behavioral therapy sessions to enhance the self-handicapping of final year students in secondary schools.</p> Peter J. O. Aloka Osita V. Ossai Amos N. Amedu Copyright (c) 2022 Peter J. O. Aloka, Osita V. Ossai, Amos N. Amedu https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-07-29 2022-07-29 4 58 66 10.21303/2504-5571.2022.002451 Television as a source of COVID-19 information: a qualitative inquiry into the experiences of the deaf during the pandemic https://journal.eu-jr.eu/social/article/view/2316 <p>Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) came as a rude shock to all. Its emergence was sudden and its attendant effects on psychosocial adjustment of all citizens especially among the Deaf were traumatic. Thus, the need to access the required information about the virus became necessary. While information about COVID-19 came from various media sources, television as an audio-visual material remains one of the most reliable sources of COVID-19 to the deaf. However, issues of quality assurance and comprehensibility of televised COVID-19 related information remain a concern among the deaf during the pandemic. Thus, as there is scarcity of research reports on such circumstances among the deaf, this study explores the perceived quality of and comprehensibility of televised sign language interpreted COVID-19 briefing by the Nigerian deaf. The motor theory of sign language perception was used as a theoretical lens in this study. An individualised semi-structured interview was used to gather data that was used to achieve an answer to the research objectives. Thematic content analysis was employed for data analysis. The following themes resulted from the analysis: visibility, incomplete interpretation, Camera handlers’/Television stations’ inadequate knowledge of deafness and deaf communication processes and partial comprehension of interpreted COVID-19 briefings. Camera handlers and technical crew must ensure adequately illuminated interpreters space and a contrasting backdrop of picture-in-picture is ensured. Also, SLIs should endeavour to use a transparent face shield or adopt the 1.5m–2.5m physical distancing rule</p> Olufemi Timothy Adigun Paseka Andrew Mosia Chidi Topaz Olujie Copyright (c) 2022 Olufemi Timothy Adigun, Paseka Andrew Mosia, Chidi Topaz Olujie https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-07-29 2022-07-29 4 67 81 10.21303/2504-5571.2022.002316 Same yardstick, different results: efficacy of rubrics in science education assessment https://journal.eu-jr.eu/social/article/view/2455 <p>Assessments have become integral to today's teaching and learning. Within the world of assessments, there are two paramount ideologies at work: assessments for learning and assessments of learning. The latter are typically administered at the end of a unit or grading period and evaluate a student’s understanding&nbsp;by comparing their achievement against a class, nationwide benchmark, or standard. The former assesses a student’s understanding of a skill or lesson&nbsp;during&nbsp;the learning and teaching process. Assessment for learning enables teachers to collect data that will help them adjust their teaching strategies, and students to adjust their learning strategies. In order to achieve this goal, teachers can make use of several assessment tools, such as concept maps, oral presentations, peer review, portfolios, examinations, written reports, and rubrics. The use of rubrics not only makes the teacher’s standards and result grading explicit but can give students a clear sense of what the expectations are for a high level of performance on a given science assignment. In this study, quantitative data were collected from tasks, assessed by 10 teachers who were purposefully sampled; while qualitative data were collected from interview responses of the same teachers to explore the extent of uniformity in the use of rubrics. The researchers compared and analyzed the different scores, allocated by the respective participants, and analyzed the qualitative data using qualitative data analysis. The study suggests that if interpreted and used well, rubrics support learning by enabling an efficient, consistent, objective, and quick way of assessing students’ work thereby facilitating learning.</p> Erasmos Charamba Nkhululeko Dlamini-Nxumalo Copyright (c) 2022 Erasmos Charamba, Nkhululeko Dlamini-Nxumalo https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-07-29 2022-07-29 4 82 90 10.21303/2504-5571.2022.002455 Assessing the conditions and ingridients of political clientelism within the South African context https://journal.eu-jr.eu/social/article/view/2515 <p>The study examines the conditions, associated with political clientelism, as well as the ingredients of clientelism within the South African context. The study brings the understanding about the relationship between politicians who go out on a periodic basis to canvass for votes and then not much happens in the lives of ordinary people. Despite this, a large number of the same politicians is re-elected to another five-year term. The broad argument in this study is that there seems to be an observable patronage type of relationship between elected parties (politicians) and citizens, and that no matter what service delivery challenges citizens confront (coupled with violent protest in some cases), voting patterns do not change much come election time. The study adopted a conceptual approach, relying on secondary data. Clientelism refers to the relationship that exists between citizens/voters (clients) and politicians (patrons) who make electoral promises in order to gain office. The first section describes what clientelism entails, followed by a discussion of clientelism’s relevance to the present study. Then, anecdotal evidence from the research site will be examined to demonstrate some elements of clientelism, as well as its significance and utility in examining service delivery challenges in local government. Following that, essential components of democratic states will be explored because they have an impact on available research evidence, showing clientelistic elements are prevalent in democracies around the world. The chapter's closing will shed some light on how leadership will be approached in this study, which stems from the fact that leadership is a key concept in this research and is implied in clientelism</p> Namane Dickson Masemola Mocheudi Martinus Selepe Copyright (c) 2022 Namane Dickson Masemola, Mocheudi Martinus Selepe https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-07-29 2022-07-29 4 91 102 10.21303/2504-5571.2022.002515 An insight into the socio-psycho contexts and modus operandi of South Africa’s worst serial killers over time https://journal.eu-jr.eu/social/article/view/2510 <p>Over the years, several myths have been peddled within societies and academic circles in relation to exploring the mysterious lives of serial killers. Socio-psycho factors have been used to explain some of their criminal behaviour. Some mythologies about serial killers are that most of them are loners, abused children, and sexually motivated killers. Some researchers have also attributed mental challenges, drugs, and alcohol as possible motives for serial killers. In some instances, some serial killers have confessed to heard unknown controlling voices, urging them to kill their victims. We are not in a rational or neutral position to know whether voices, hearing by serial killers, are actually factual experiences or not. However, to enter a plea of insanity for murder is widely known with the criminal law field. This is the reason why in some cases, offenders are accessed to ascertain their fitness to stand trial. This article deals with a very serious challenging crime and highlights the safety of citizens. The article has three aims, first, to explore and debunk the secretive world of serial killers. Second, to explore the serial killer’s motives and modus operandi. Third, to highlight the dangers serial killers pose to society. Some of the findings are that serial killer does not always live a life of a loner, and some understudy of serial killers found out some of them live a family life. Several serial killers were abused as children and from dysfunctional families and social backgrounds. Most serial killers are men and there is a patriarchal domineering and controlling personality, ascribed to serial killers</p> Shaka Yesufu Copyright (c) 2022 Shaka Yesufu https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-07-29 2022-07-29 4 103 112 10.21303/2504-5571.2022.002510 Wildlife crime and rhino poaching in South Africa: a qualitative document analysis of patterns and frequency of visitations of adventurers https://journal.eu-jr.eu/social/article/view/2503 <p>The study describes rhino poaching as an illicit anti-social behaviour that has constantly been on increase in South Africa. Predominantly, KwaZulu-Natal, and specifically Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park, became a highly protected zone for biota and wildlife sustainability. However, with environmental crime becoming more sophisticated in this province, criminal justice and anti-poaching teams need to be more equipped continuously with the necessary tools and strategies, required to stand united against wildlife crime. The study adopted document analysis to explore the use of cell phone data records as a forensic investigative instrument for tracing the frequency and patterns of activities of the two largest syndicate groups of rhino poachers from Mpumalanga and Winterveld to Hluhluwe-imfolozi park. Findings unfolded that cell phone records are a viable cellular geographic tool for tracing the footprints, patterns of movement and activities of illegal rhino hunters, affecting the poaching levels at Hluhluwe-imfolozi Park. The study’s findings were incredibly insightful into the behavioural activities of poachers, being one of the first to broaden the lens of cell phone data analysis on this scale. Evidence from the movement analysis revealed that poaching depends on a multitude of factors, such as global pandemic, border control measures, poaching levels rising in reserves, decreased policing measures and a lack of proactive strategies. The study concludes that cell phone data records, considered in isolation, cannot be reflected upon accurately, as a panacea for wildlife crime, without supporting facts from police procedure of intelligence gathering, local knowledge and partnership with local communities. Lastly, within the specific study area, it allows a unique view and perspective of the travel patterns of very sophisticated and advanced syndicate groups, as well as creating room for additional deeply rooted studies of poaching activity and incursions in South Africa.</p> Kajal Singh Sogo Angel Olofinbiyi Copyright (c) 2022 Kajal Singh, Sogo Angel Olofinbiyi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-07-29 2022-07-29 4 113 122 10.21303/2504-5571.2022.002503