Analysis of environmental hazards in the system «children's playground – urbanized area»
The article presents the results of the study of environmental pollution by methods of biological indication. The objects of research are children's playgrounds which are influenced by the negative anthropogenic factors. A child's body is more vulnerable to anthropogenic stresses. Car exhaust gases can have a negative impact on the respiratory, cardiovascular, nervous and other systems. Excessive noise pollution not only affects your hearing, but also other organs and systems. In addition, noise can increase stress hormone levels. The aim of the study is to identify the main adverse factors affecting playgrounds in large cities. Despite there are the sanitary standards for the placement of playgrounds in large cities, it was found that about 50 % of all playgrounds were located in violation of environmental safety standards. As part of the work, an inventory of children's playgrounds and sports grounds in the cities of Kyiv, Kharkiv and Dnipro was carried out. The author carried out experimental research on some playgrounds using biological indication methods. The method of lichen indication revealed that four out of ten playgrounds in Kharkiv have a high level of air pollution, and two out of ten in Kyiv and Dnipro. This is confirmed by the biotesting method. It was found that one of the methods of solving the problem of excessive anthropogenic load on the objects of study is planting greenery. It is experimentally established that green plantations are able to reduce the level of noise pollution by 4–6 dB and absorb pollutants. In addition to reducing the anthropogenic load, the greening of playgrounds has an impact on improving the microclimate of the urban environment, and developing the visual qualities of urbanised landscapes
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